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Improperly disposed plastics usually wind up in the ocean, where they can remain for hundreds of years before degrading which are easily ingested by fish and spread through ocean ecosystems and enter human diets through commercial fishing, thereby exposing humans to health risks. The Ocean Cleanup aims to address this problem by removing and recycling plastic directly from the surface of the ocean. This subreddit serves as a discussion platform for these and similar ocean cleaning technologies.
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The personal subreddit of Dr. Will Powers

Dr. William Powers - Family Physician, LGBT care, Transgender Specific Care Dr. Powers can't respond to PM's anymore on literally any platform. He's overwhelmed, and you guys send him 50-100 a day. Please stop, they are ignored. If you want to ask him a question, post in this subreddit and he will do his best when he has time. The peanut gallery tends to chime in a lot though for things he has commonly spoken on. Be excellent to each other.
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Your Choice To Make

TL;DR: Wakey wakey, give a crap about freedom, or accept the consequences.
Another Sunday afternoon, another news item about Monero being delisted from a centralized exchange, this time in Australia.
Last year it was OKEx and others.
Just a few days ago it was Coinspot.
It is sort of an open secret that Coinbase is not listing Monero due to external pressures. Today we're hit with news that Kraken will be ceasing Monero trading for AU residents.
And you will also recall that Japan and South Korea have made similar moves.
It's a near impossibility with me, especially when powered by caffeine, which is most definitely the case today, but I will try to make this brief, sweet and to the point.
These are not isolated incidents. There is an International Organization™ in particular orchestrating, behind the scenes, the policies and requirements that financial institutions (crypto exchanges have since joined that category for this purpose) must follow, or else.
Here is what bothers me about this.
Have you been consulted about this? Anyone you know?
Heard of it in the news?
Yeah, me neither.
You have to know where to look to find some information on what they would like to see happening (we'll get to that in a moment), and often you have to read PDFs with dozens of pages to find the good stuff too.
I will leave that as an exercise to the reader. Suffice to say, I have been digging a bit deeper myself, and what I found shocked me.
FATF wants nothing less than the complete elimination of anonymity and privacy in financial affairs, even going so far as to consider BANNING peer to peer transactions so that people are forced to interact with each other through exchanges, where data collection is more reliable and certain, effectively obliterating one of the major selling points of cryptocurrency (p2p-ness) with complete disregard for the millions of people who are already onboard with the vision.
No privacy and no anonymity, imagine that.
Many of you probably already use plastic cards for everything, day in day out, and don't think too much about this stuff.
But the fact that an international organization that you have little to zero democratic control over is planning to get rid of class of financial tools that 99.99999% of people don't even realize exists yet should give you pause for concern.
The tools I speak of are, of course, digital cash-like cryptocurrencies like Monero.
I would like you to PAUSE, daydream a bit, visualize and imagine, what a world without zero financial privacy/anonymity would look like.
Consider, this has certainly not been the case in human history, ever -- yes, even today.
Today most of you still have cash as a choice. But what happens when that goes out of the window, and the only options are CBDCs, CorporateCoins, and transparent cryptocurrency ?
Needless to say, both in the case of CorporateCoins and CBDCs, there will be little to none privacy/anonymity, and even if there was (in the case of CorporateCoin), the state would obviously bully its way into it and force them to do otherwise (without being asked to do so, of course).
So, imagine that world.
Every donation you make. Every $50 transfer to a friend or family member. Every item you buy. Every service you purchase. Every money you send to help a friend you.
All of it stored, forever, to be accessed later at will for whatever reasons.
Would you make the same choices, knowing that your entire financial life is entirely exposed to powerful organizations of which you likely know very little about and almost certainly can hardly ever influence at all?
Does that seem like a good recipe for a free society?

Consequences

The people at the top either don't care about the consequences of what they're imposing worldwide, or they don't understand.
Sounds highly concerning to me either way - It comes down to either bullying or ignorance.
Would you ever have truly heart-to-heart conversations if you knew your worst enemy was potentially watching and recording everything?
Could you make passionate love knowing hundreds of strangers are analyzing your every move?
Can you be spontaneous knowing you are being recorded?
What if you did not have a choice in those matters ?!
What if someone has already decided for you, your friends, your family, your neighbors, your country, that you are all potential criminals and the thing to do is to keep records on everyone, just in case ?
Newsflash: It already happened.
It's been happening for awhile, and it seems to be picking up pace; the technology that was going to liberate us, slowly enslaving us instead -- because the general public largely does not understand the issues at hand, while the elite certainly does, and boy oh boy, are they thrilled with the technological advancements that help them cement their power.
What do I mean by cement?
Imagine trying to kick-start civil rights in a place where every social map is known, everything a person is interested in is known, every transaction they make is known, every website they have visited is known, every time they step on the street, an AI-powered camera automatically identifies them and tracks their movement.
You would be unable to organize. To exchange value. To discuss behind curtains, so to speak.
You would not have any privacy, and you would not have any anonymity.
Could you be free under these circumstances?

Conclusion

It's been a long road towards more freedom, but nowdays it is disappearing fast. Stopping to consider the implications is a most pressing issue.
They want Monero(-like tools) GONE because Monero ACTUALLY would change the paradigm.
By the time they are done with their "recommendations" (which really mean: comply, or else...), mark my words, there will be a name behind every Bitcoin address in some centralized database, query-able by partners in deciding who can and cannot use the system.
Merchants will be forced to perform chain analysis and by law they will be compelled to reject/refund/report transactions coming from "anonymous clusters" (addresses that are not known to have an identity tied to them).
This is what the normalization of the lack of privacy has brought us.
The possibility was there, and they took it. Of course they did.
I repeat, it is no accident that it's not Dogecoin and Nano, Bitcoin or Litecoin being delisted.
The star of the show (for better or for worse) is Monero, and that is because it works.
It lets you transact anonymously and privately, like cash - why the hell should FATF know that you sent $500 to your mother last week? in fact, why the hell should they know your entire financial history?!
When cash goes (and we can be fairly certain that it will be gone; would already be gone if this sort of authoritarian mindset had its way), Monero or tools like Monero, will become the only way to make any transaction outside the eyes of the state.
It's not because you have anything (nefarious) to hide. It's not because you're a criminal.
Rather, it's because to accept anything else is to bow to tyranny.
It's your choice to make - are you meekly going to accept that in perhaps less than a decade there will be zero privacy and anonymity in financial matters, or are you going to fight back?
Will you organize, campaign, email, discuss, spread awareness?
Will you spend precious summer Sunday afternoons writing for strangers on the Internet trying to help a few more see the major shit-show we're headed into?
Or will you be a good boy and do what you're told?
Tomorrow, by the way - if left unchallenged - it won't just be financial privacy that disappears.
One of the most prominent examples in the introductory part of this post (Australia) has already made quite clear that they don't like the fact that people can hide things from them (encryption).
In other words, either they know about it (and archive it forever), or you better let them know. After all, a threat - any threat! - could be lurking somewhere in that encrypted data. And you have nothing to hide anyway, yes?
This is a cryptocurrency sub though so let's not steer too far from that. It is important to remember that ultimately the issue is the same though - totalitarian control over everyone's life; mass-surveillance, and the ability to rewind and see someone's entire life exposed for the benefit of the state.
Their actions are letting you know what really works and what really threatens the status quo. That is useful information.
If you care at all about the freedom and privacy of your future self, your friends and family, children present or future, I think you would do well to think long and hard about these issues.
Because the direction assumed by the most prominent regulators seems to be headed in a uniform direction - that is no surprise, seeing as how they meet with each other.
You have to ask yourself though, is this for your benefit, your safety?
Or is it to keep the statuo quo?
How would the world be different if human beings - regardless of color, nationality, age, sexual orientation, political beliefs- with an Internet connection could freely exchange value privately and anonymously (the way we can still communicate private and anonymously in most places today - though not so in authoritarian places like China, AND THAT IS NOT A COINCIDENCE)?
It would be instant, like an instant message. It would cost very little.
Well, I have news for you: It's already possible, and a growing number of people are realizing this.
This tool is called Monero. It exists today, and the cat is out of the bag. The technology will only get better, and more interesting tools may even come along later.
In fact, barring mass persecution of open-source developers, that is very likely what is going to happen, as ultrasmart people everywhere congregate in virtual spaces to discuss better ways to do stuff.
If we keep losing our right to be left alone until suspected of a crime, life will increasingly come to resemble what the regulator types are - consciously or unconsciously - creating: a Panopticon society.
If you don't speak up, then the decision has already been made - and you're probably going to live to regret being complicit in it.
Freedom or Tyranny. It's your choice to make.
p.s: Yes, totally failed at making this short. I guess it's just not my thing.
submitted by xmr_kayront to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
A whirlwind tour of Defi, paying close attention to protocols that we’re leveraging at Genesis Block.
https://reddit.com/link/hrrt21/video/cvjh5rrh12b51/player
This is the third post of Crypto-Powered — a new series that examines what it means for Genesis Block to be a digital bank that’s powered by crypto, blockchain, and decentralized protocols.
Last week we explored how building on legacy finance is a fool’s errand. The future of money belongs to those who build with crypto and blockchain at their core. We also started down the crypto rabbit hole, introducing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi (decentralized finance). That post is required reading if you hope to glean any value from the rest of this series.
97% of all activity on Ethereum in the last quarter has been DeFi-related. The total value sitting inside DeFi protocols is roughly $2B — double what it was a month ago. The explosive growth cannot be ignored. All signs suggest that Ethereum & DeFi are a Match Made in Heaven, and both on their way to finding strong product/market fit.
So in this post, we’re doing a whirlwind tour of DeFi. We look at specific examples and use-cases already in the wild and seeing strong growth. And we pay close attention to protocols that Genesis Block is integrating with. Alright, let’s dive in.

Stablecoins

Stablecoins are exactly what they sound like: cryptocurrencies that are stable. They are not meant to be volatile (like Bitcoin). These assets attempt to peg their price to some external reference (eg. USD or Gold). A non-volatile crypto asset can be incredibly useful for things like merchant payments, cross-border transfers, or storing wealth — becoming your own bank but without the stress of constant price volatility.
There are major governments and central banks that are experimenting with or soon launching their own stablecoins like China with their digital yuan and the US Federal Reserve with their digital dollar. There are also major corporations working in this area like JP Morgan with their JPM Coin, and of course Facebook with their Libra Project.
Stablecoin activity has grown 800% in the last year, with $290B of transaction volume (funds moving on-chain).
The most popular USD-pegged stablecoins include:
  1. Tether ($10B): It’s especially popular in Asia. It’s backed by USD in a bank account. But given their lack of transparency and past controversies, they generally aren’t trusted as much in the West.
  2. USDC ($1B): This is the most reputable USD-backed stablecoin, at least in the West. It was created by Coinbase & Circle, both well-regarded crypto companies. They’ve been very open and transparent with their audits and bank records.
  3. DAI ($189M): This is backed by other crypto assets — not USD in a bank account. This was arguably the first true DeFi protocol. The big benefit is that it’s more decentralized — it’s not controlled by any single organization. The downside is that the assets backing it can be volatile crypto assets (though it has mechanisms in place to mitigate that risk).
Other notable USD-backed stablecoins include PAX, TrueUSD, Binance USD, and Gemini Dollar.
tablecoins are playing an increasingly important role in the world of DeFi. In a way, they serve as common pipes & bridges between the various protocols.
https://preview.redd.it/v9ki2qro12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=dbf591b122fc4b3d83b381389145b88e2505b51d

Lending & Borrowing

Three of the top five DeFi protocols relate to lending & borrowing. These popular lending protocols look very similar to traditional money markets. Users who want to earn interest/yield can deposit (lend) their funds into a pool of liquidity. Because it behaves similarly to traditional money markets, their funds are not locked, they can withdraw at any time. It’s highly liquid.
Borrowers can tap into this pool of liquidity and take out loans. Interest rates depend on the utilization rate of the pool — how much of the deposits in the pool have already been borrowed. Supply & demand. Thus, interest rates are variable and borrowers can pay their loans back at any time.
So, who decides how much a borrower can take? What’s the process like? Are there credit checks? How is credit-worthiness determined?
These protocols are decentralized, borderless, permissionless. The people participating in these markets are from all over the world. There is no simple way to verify identity or check credit history. So none of that happens.
Credit-worthiness is determined simply by how much crypto collateral the borrower puts into the protocol. For example, if a user wants to borrow $5k of USDC, then they’ll need to deposit $10k of BTC or ETH. The exact amount of collateral depends on the rules of the protocol — usually the more liquid the collateral asset, the more borrowing power the user can receive.
The most prominent lending protocols include Compound, Aave, Maker, and Atomic Loans. Recently, Compound has seen meteoric growth with the introduction of their COMP token — a token used to incentivize and reward participants of the protocol. There’s almost $1B in outstanding debt in the Compound protocol. Mainframe is also working on an exciting protocol in this area and the latest iteration of their white paper should be coming out soon.
There is very little economic risk to these protocols because all loans are overcollateralized.
I repeat, all loans are overcollateralized. If the value of the collateral depreciates significantly due to price volatility, there are sophisticated liquidation systems to ensure the loan always gets paid back.
https://preview.redd.it/rru5fykv12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=620679dd84fca098a042051c7e7e1697be8dd259

Investments

Buying, selling, and trading crypto assets is certainly one form of investing (though not for the faint of heart). But there are now DeFi protocols to facilitate making and managing traditional-style investments.
Through DeFi, you can invest in Gold. You can invest in stocks like Amazon and Apple. You can short Tesla. You can access the S&P 500. This is done through crypto-based synthetics — which gives users exposure to assets without needing to hold or own the underlying asset. This is all possible with protocols like UMA, Synthetix, or Market protocol.
Maybe your style of investing is more passive. With PoolTogether , you can participate in a no-loss lottery.
Maybe you’re an advanced trader and want to trade options or futures. You can do that with DeFi protocols like Convexity, Futureswap, and dYdX. Maybe you live on the wild side and trade on margin or leverage, you can do that with protocols like Fulcrum, Nuo, and DDEX. Or maybe you’re a degenerate gambler and want to bet against Trump in the upcoming election, you can do that on Augur.
And there are plenty of DeFi protocols to help with crypto investing. You could use Set Protocol if you need automated trading strategies. You could use Melonport if you’re an asset manager. You could use Balancer to automatically rebalance your portfolio.
With as little as $1, people all over the world can have access to the same investment opportunities and tools that used to be reserved for only the wealthy, or those lucky enough to be born in the right country.
You can start to imagine how services like Etrade, TD Ameritrade, Schwab, and even Robinhood could be massively disrupted by a crypto-native company that builds with these types of protocols at their foundation.
https://preview.redd.it/agco8msx12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=3bbb595f9ecc84758d276dbf82bc5ddd9e329ff8

Insurance

As mentioned in our previous post, there are near-infinite applications one can build on Ethereum. As a result, sometimes the code doesn’t work as expected. Bugs get through, it breaks. We’re still early in our industry. The tools, frameworks, and best practices are all still being established. Things can go wrong.
Sometimes the application just gets in a weird or bad state where funds can’t be recovered — like with what happened with Parity where $280M got frozen (yes, I lost some money in that). Sometimes, there are hackers who discover a vulnerability in the code and maliciously steal funds — like how dForce lost $25M a few months ago, or how The DAO lost $50M a few years ago. And sometimes the system works as designed, but the economic model behind it is flawed, so a clever user takes advantage of the system— like what recently happened with Balancer where they lost $500k.
There are a lot of risks when interacting with smart contracts and decentralized applications — especially for ones that haven’t stood the test of time. This is why insurance is such an important development in DeFi.
Insurance will be an essential component in helping this technology reach the masses.
Two protocols that are leading the way on DeFi insurance are Nexus Mutual and Opyn. Though they are both still just getting started, many people are already using them. And we’re excited to start working with them at Genesis Block.
https://preview.redd.it/wf1xvq3z12b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=70db1e9587f57d0c470a4f9f4523c216929e1876

Exchanges & Liquidity

Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) were one of the first and most developed categories in DeFi. A DEX allows a user to easily exchange one crypto asset for another crypto asset — but without needing to sign up for an account, verify identity, etc. It’s all via decentralized protocols.
Within the first 5 months of 2020, the top 7 DEX already achieved the 2019 trading volume. That was $2.5B. DeFi is fueling a lot of this growth.
https://preview.redd.it/1dwvq4e022b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=97a3d756f60239cd147031eb95fc2a981db55943
There are many different flavors of DEX. Some of the early ones included 0x, IDEX, and EtherDelta — all of which had a traditional order book model where buyers are matched with sellers.
Another flavor is the pooled liquidity approach where the price is determined algorithmically based on how much liquidity there is and how much the user wants to buy. This is known as an AMM (Automated Market Maker) — Uniswap and Bancor were early leaders here. Though lately, Balancer has seen incredible growth due mostly to their strong incentives for participation — similar to Compound.
There are some DEXs that are more specialized — for example, Curve and mStable focus mostly only stablecoins. Because of the proliferation of these decentralized exchanges, there are now aggregators that combine and connect the liquidity of many sources. Those include Kyber, Totle, 1Inch, and Dex.ag.
These decentralized exchanges are becoming more and more connected to DeFi because they provide an opportunity for yield and earning interest.
Users can earn passive income by supplying liquidity to these markets. It usually comes in the form of sharing transaction fee revenue (Uniswap) or token rewards (Balancer).
https://preview.redd.it/wrug6lg222b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9c47a3f2e01426ca87d84b92c1e914db39ff773f

Payments

As it relates to making payments, much of the world is still stuck on plastic cards. We’re grateful to partner with Visa and launch the Genesis Block debit card… but we still don’t believe that's the future of payments. We see that as an important bridge between the past (legacy finance) and the future (crypto).
Our first post in this series shared more on why legacy finance is broken. We talked about the countless unnecessary middle-men on every card swipe (merchant, acquiring bank, processor, card network, issuing bank). We talked about the slow settlement times.
The future of payments will be much better. Yes, it’ll be from a mobile phone and the user experience will be similar to ApplePay (NFC) or WePay (QR Code).
But more importantly, the underlying assets being moved/exchanged will all be crypto — digital, permissionless, and open source.
Someone making a payment at the grocery store check-out line will be able to open up Genesis Block, use contactless tech or scan a QR code, and instantly pay for their goods. All using crypto. Likely a stablecoin. Settlement will be instant. All the middlemen getting their pound of flesh will be disintermediated. The merchant can make more and the user can spend less. Blockchain FTW!
Now let’s talk about a few projects working in this area. The xDai Burner Wallet experience was incredible at the ETHDenver event a few years ago, but that speed came at the expense of full decentralization (can it be censored or shut down?). Of course, Facebook’s Libra wants to become the new standard for global payments, but many are afraid to give Facebook that much control (newsflash: it isn’t very decentralized).
Bitcoin is decentralized… but it’s slow and volatile. There are strong projects like Lightning Network (Zap example) that are still trying to make it happen. Projects like Connext and OmiseGo are trying to help bring payments to Ethereum. The Flexa project is leveraging the gift card rails, which is a nice hack to leverage existing pipes. And if ETH 2.0 is as fast as they say it will be, then the future of payments could just be a stablecoin like DAI (a token on Ethereum).
In a way, being able to spend crypto on daily expenses is the holy grail of use-cases. It’s still early. It hasn’t yet been solved. But once we achieve this, then we can ultimately and finally say goodbye to the legacy banking & finance world. Employees can be paid in crypto. Employees can spend in crypto. It changes everything.
Legacy finance is hanging on by a thread, and it’s this use-case that they are still clinging to. Once solved, DeFi domination will be complete.
https://preview.redd.it/svft1ce422b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a6afc9e9339a3fec29ee2ae743c07c3042ea4ce

Impact on Genesis Block

At Genesis Block, we’re excited to leverage these protocols and take this incredible technology to the world. Many of these protocols are already deeply integrated with our product. In fact, many are essential. The masses won’t know (or care about) what Tether, USDC, or DAI is. They think in dollars, euros, pounds and pesos. So while the user sees their local currency in the app, the underlying technology is all leveraging stablecoins. It’s all on “crypto rails.”
https://preview.redd.it/jajzttr622b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=fcf55cea1216a1d2fcc3bf327858b009965f9bf8
When users deposit assets into their Genesis Block account, they expect to earn interest. They expect that money to grow. We leverage many of these low-risk lending/exchange DeFi protocols. We lend into decentralized money markets like Compound — where all loans are overcollateralized. Or we supply liquidity to AMM exchanges like Balancer. This allows us to earn interest and generate yield for our depositors. We’re the experts so our users don’t need to be.
We haven’t yet integrated with any of the insurance or investment protocols — but we certainly plan on it. Our infrastructure is built with blockchain technology at the heart and our system is extensible — we’re ready to add assets and protocols when we feel they are ready, safe, secure, and stable. Many of these protocols are still in the experimental phase. It’s still early.
At Genesis Block we’re excited to continue to be at the frontlines of this incredible, innovative, technological revolution called DeFi.
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None of these powerful DeFi protocols will be replacing Robinhood, SoFi, or Venmo anytime soon. They never will. They aren’t meant to! We’ve discussed this before, these are low-level protocols that need killer applications, like Genesis Block.
So now that we’ve gone a little deeper down the rabbit hole and we’ve done this whirlwind tour of DeFi, the natural next question is: why?
Why does any of it matter?
Most of these financial services that DeFi offers already exist in the real world. So why does it need to be on a blockchain? Why does it need to be decentralized? What new value is unlocked? Next post, we answer these important questions.
To look at more projects in DeFi, check out DeFi Prime, DeFi Pulse, or Consensys.
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Other Ways to Consume Today's Episode:
Follow our social channels:https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Download the app. We're a digital bank that's powered by crypto:https://genesisblock.com/download
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Subreddit Stats: Drama top posts from 2018-08-11 to 2019-08-10 20:29 PDT

Period: 364.37 days
Submissions Comments
Total 993 175972
Rate (per day) 2.73 479.44
Unique Redditors 502 14271
Combined Score 524087 3258754

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 9206 points, 13 submissions: Kellere31
    1. Smug post 3000: Magathots (1474 points, 98 comments)
    2. Smug post 13 😍Pibbls😍 (1302 points, 246 comments)
    3. Centrist smugpost 4 (1170 points, 187 comments)
    4. Smug post 15: conservative edition (802 points, 151 comments)
    5. Drama meta smug post 6 (676 points, 406 comments)
    6. Smug post 10 BasicallyADoctor fan edition (642 points, 63 comments)
    7. By the way I am totally an Anarchist sweaty! (574 points, 72 comments)
    8. In response to recent (((migration))) on this sub. (548 points, 49 comments)
    9. Smug post 8. The reminder that this applies to Magatards too. (502 points, 175 comments)
    10. Centrist smug post 9: shitty reddit humor (432 points, 97 comments)
  2. 8910 points, 2 submissions: Barrack-HusseinObama
    1. Rotten Tomatoes pulls “Want to see” percentage score from site after Captain Marvel interest dips below 25%. (8615 points, 1865 comments)
    2. Jeffrey Epstein Found Injured in NYC Jail Cell After Possible Suicide Attempt (295 points, 156 comments)
  3. 5735 points, 9 submissions: rsrfy
    1. >powermods (1746 points, 153 comments)
    2. look how they massacred my boy (974 points, 122 comments)
    3. never forget the innocence the fugees took from us (545 points, 56 comments)
    4. Ben Garrison puts down the syringe long enough to make his holiday gift guide (507 points, 205 comments)
    5. mfw centroid jannie (484 points, 26 comments)
    6. Shitting on your floor to own Drumpf (405 points, 230 comments)
    7. new Lawlz sticky? lemme save you a click (375 points, 71 comments)
    8. the real weapon they don't want you to have (361 points, 61 comments)
    9. had to do it to em (338 points, 31 comments)
  4. 4701 points, 11 submissions: BIknkbtKitNwniS
    1. Vice: Not believing in astrology is toxic masculinity. "Women and queer people are drawn to astrology because it offers community and refuge. In a heterosexual patriarchy, cis-het men arguably have less to seek refuge from" (603 points, 222 comments)
    2. Is Poland /ourcountry/ ? (515 points, 177 comments)
    3. Imagine being so unbearable that being replaced by a plastic doll is a real concern for you. (486 points, 442 comments)
    4. When rightoids call leftoids NPCs and vice versa (484 points, 143 comments)
    5. They targeted readers. Readers. (449 points, 302 comments)
    6. Obama isn't woke because he attended McCain's funeral instead of Aretha Franklin's because all black people are friends or something. (441 points, 98 comments)
    7. Bernie Sanders can't contain his (((inner Jew))) when he's asked about his favourite book. (400 points, 171 comments)
    8. The left really can't meme (394 points, 232 comments)
    9. Menslibber can't handle playful flirting from half naked Halloween thots. "I feel sexually harassed". (352 points, 275 comments)
    10. WatchRedditDies is literally filing a lawsuit against blackpeopletwitter for not letting mayos post lmao (293 points, 184 comments)
  5. 4569 points, 11 submissions: Ghdust2
    1. Another male feminist gets accused of sexual assault. The kicker? he was the founder of Study of Men and Masculinities at Stony Brook. The university that was recommended to braincels after the quarantine. (653 points, 283 comments)
    2. Brie “All Mayos Need To Get K.O.” Larson gets angry at Thor for comparing her to Tom Cruise. (501 points, 360 comments)
    3. Imagine being this upset at a capehsit movie. (427 points, 214 comments)
    4. This is certifiably the worst thing Ben “The Fentanyl Man” Garrison has drawn. (415 points, 93 comments)
    5. So he totally jerks it to this, right? (411 points, 61 comments)
    6. Ben “Gotta Gas Em All” Garrison shares his thoughts on the Jessie Smollett controversy. (401 points, 66 comments)
    7. Mod of liberal_irl goes on a pinging spree. (400 points, 184 comments)
    8. Horseshoe theory proven right yet again as Chapo celebrates terrorist attacks on Jews. (376 points, 275 comments)
    9. ScarJo says actors should be allowed to do their jobs, the femcels over at gamerghazi react with terror. (344 points, 97 comments)
    10. The soyboys of menslib discuss how the thought of physical strength makes them uncomfortable. (334 points, 150 comments)
  6. 4390 points, 3 submissions: GeauxHouston22
    1. this is literally every one of you dweebs (2098 points, 191 comments)
    2. Jussie Smollett up for NAACP Award and I'm now fully convinced that our lizard overlords monitor this subreddit and manipulate reality to benefit it (1303 points, 335 comments)
    3. a tale as old as time (989 points, 189 comments)
  7. 4113 points, 7 submissions: Oh_hamburgers_
    1. T_D sent 3 tons of salt to the CNN headquarters (1760 points, 735 comments)
    2. Had fun at the meetup today drama, thanks for coming (571 points, 207 comments)
    3. Woke Twitter erupts into hysterics when a Jewish Mexican casually rests her arm during the Kavanaugh hearings (401 points, 345 comments)
    4. oh jeez (360 points, 296 comments)
    5. Blackfellas struggle to cope with the "white supremacist shooter" narrative getting BLACKED (359 points, 87 comments)
    6. Bitcoin boys may be out nearly $200m after boomer forgets to write down password and then dies (343 points, 145 comments)
    7. 300lb braphog crackhead crushes her 120lb crackhead manlet to death with a yokozuna finishing move (319 points, 92 comments)
  8. 4084 points, 8 submissions: dootwthesickness_II
    1. This image makes the CAfugees cry (864 points, 151 comments)
    2. The great CAnimal purge does NOT mean that Chapocels are welcome here. Defend /Drama's sovereignty. Post things that upset them. (756 points, 300 comments)
    3. In light of the recent spergfest involving /butchlesbians, let's remember to keep ourselves safe (550 points, 146 comments)
    4. /pol/ baits a new hook. Will the blue checkmarks bite again? (514 points, 111 comments)
    5. “Russians have changed tactics to try to drive a wedge between feminists and Muslims. You will be seeing a lot of these contentious posts on the front page for the coming year.” (431 points, 282 comments)
    6. "I am NOT an incel! I'm just involuntarily unable to get laid!" t. /ChapoTraphouse (331 points, 159 comments)
    7. Art museum discovers that museumgoers want to see art, not blank spaces on the walls that "encourage thought about how women's bodies are shown." (326 points, 187 comments)
    8. Build a wall and make /conservative pay for it (312 points, 137 comments)
  9. 4035 points, 9 submissions: Strictlybutters
    1. YEpost: 🌊 Drama’s Patron Saint wears a MAGA hat and Colin Kaepernick t shirt while reading quotations from chairman Mao (832 points, 132 comments)
    2. Kanye announces his yexit from the right (470 points, 213 comments)
    3. Zyklon Ben’s latest fentanyl laced fever dream (466 points, 157 comments)
    4. When I said that Hillary Clinton got schlonged by Obama, it meant got beaten badly. The media knows this. Often used word in politics! (460 points, 97 comments)
    5. GQ writer can’t believe people have the audacity to wish her a Merry Christmas and likens it to being told as a female to smile more😤😤 (439 points, 145 comments)
    6. Strong 💪 big boy 👦 president DESTROYS small soychild libshit with facts and logic! (408 points, 138 comments)
    7. Chris Pratt fills his closet with 🇺🇸 🐍tee shirts 🐍 🇺🇸from goodwill like a poor🤢🤢🤮🤮 and therefore as logic obviously dictates is white supremacist trash and is from here on out CANCELLED! (343 points, 293 comments)
    8. Are female AI voices causing toxic masculinity or is this the most retarded hot take ever (319 points, 81 comments)
    9. Broke people are usually very low class, have extremely bad manners, have zero etiquette and no class at all whatsoever. THREAD (298 points, 93 comments)
  10. 3998 points, 9 submissions: Coonass_alt
    1. Jussie literally walked out of his apartment to go stage the hate crime with the noose ALREADY around his neck. His own apartment cameras captured it. (672 points, 136 comments)
    2. the NYT finally breaks the bad news that most people actually got a tax cut from blumpf and /politics is SEETHING. Currently 18% upvoted. (554 points, 360 comments)
    3. How much C O P E does it take to make a graph like this? Found in /datingoverthirty (547 points, 224 comments)
    4. Scientists say that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is unsafe. /Science white-knights melt the fuck down. (442 points, 222 comments)
    5. Multiple people have tried to remove references to Epstien's Jewish heritage from his Wikipedia article today, fight between people who want to keep that information there and those who want to scrub it. (384 points, 221 comments)
    6. College calls the police, sends out campus wide e-mails, after cartoon frog is posted on bulletin board (379 points, 181 comments)
    7. For the second day in a row, literally the top 50 posts on reddit.com were removed by mods. SMH y'all really can't behave. Be better. (363 points, 59 comments)
    8. Teens attack random people in Philadelphia (352 points, 293 comments)
    9. Reddit Gamers get scammed by marketing and overhype for like the 10th time in the past 3 years and now the subreddit for the newest pile of shit is in open revolt. Remember these retards fell for an EA game. (305 points, 142 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. SnapshillBot (28652 points, 937 comments)
  2. Ed_ButteredToast (17519 points, 956 comments)
  3. AnnoysTheGoys (16293 points, 642 comments)
  4. Starship_Litterbox_C (16083 points, 492 comments)
  5. BIknkbtKitNwniS (15442 points, 152 comments)
  6. snallygaster (15259 points, 699 comments)
  7. The_Reason_Trump_Won (15096 points, 124 comments)
  8. Tzar-Romulus (14084 points, 578 comments)
  9. Corporal-Hicks (13887 points, 360 comments)
  10. TaysSecondGussy (13505 points, 430 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Rotten Tomatoes pulls “Want to see” percentage score from site after Captain Marvel interest dips below 25%. by Barrack-HusseinObama (8615 points, 1865 comments)
  2. SEETHING white femcel by deleted (4884 points, 983 comments)
  3. Gillette made an ad telling their customers that they are sexist pieces of shit. by deleted (4867 points, 2995 comments)
  4. A New Zealander literally said "Subscribe to PewDiePie" before shooting up a mosque by ObsessiveMuso (3968 points, 2093 comments)
  5. Unstoppable force meets immovable object by Mat_The_49th (2944 points, 544 comments)
  6. The_Donald just got quarantined by EddingtonDidNothingW (2280 points, 927 comments)
  7. this is literally every one of you dweebs by GeauxHouston22 (2098 points, 191 comments)
  8. drama by DannedFromBrama (2006 points, 96 comments)
  9. Thots on suicide watch as it turns out they have to pay taxes too by deleted (1948 points, 772 comments)
  10. You’re welcome by deleted (1784 points, 190 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 2701 points: deleted's comment in Gillette made an ad telling their customers that they are sexist pieces of shit.
  2. 1778 points: RobertSpringer's comment in Gillette made an ad telling their customers that they are sexist pieces of shit.
  3. 1617 points: a_cute_grill's comment in A pre-HRT, pre surgery Transwoman who also happens to be a lesbian wins a major women's cycling competition. cycling is pissed.
  4. 1474 points: Destirigon's comment in A pre-HRT, pre surgery Transwoman who also happens to be a lesbian wins a major women's cycling competition. cycling is pissed.
  5. 1461 points: HardIsLife's comment in Gillette made an ad telling their customers that they are sexist pieces of shit.
  6. 1275 points: RandolphCox's comment in Thots on suicide watch as it turns out they have to pay taxes too
  7. 1209 points: keeeeshawn's comment in Gillette made an ad telling their customers that they are sexist pieces of shit.
  8. 1090 points: CirqueDuFuder's comment in Gillette made an ad telling their customers that they are sexist pieces of shit.
  9. 1030 points: stalejokesunlimited's comment in Thots on suicide watch as it turns out they have to pay taxes too
  10. 985 points: melokobeai's comment in Autist furry somehow gets job at NASA, proceeds to insult a member of the National Space Council, loses internship
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
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How to manage your online/offline purchases and why it matters

Privacy when using a debit/credit card. It's something very few think about but has, and will continue to have, far reaching concerns that are virtually impossible to correct.
When you use your card, a couple things happen. The business where you made your purchase opens a profile tied directly to you and stores that indefinitely. Along with the business, your bank also gathers a significant portion of information to store indefinitely. Here's a few things that the business and bank know when you make a purchase.
Business
If you have a store rewards account, which many people do, you can add these to the list
Bank
Over time, your profile at these companies build. Full itemized purchase history, exact date and time of every purchase you've ever made down to the second, and every card you've used to buy everything. Your bank doesn't have quite as many details, but they know almost as much. Once you realize all of the information that you give off by inserting or swiping or tapping a piece of plastic, it starts to become slightly concerning.
The thoughts of identity theft typically spring the the forefront and for good reason. 284 data breaches across a dozen different industries, releasing billions (with a B) of personal records and credentials is astoundingly tragic. Almost 17 million people experienced identity theft in 2017. You can walk into any local Starbucks, look around, and know that at least one person in the building has personally experienced identity theft. It's shockingly common.
Even though someone can open credit cards in your name or impersonate you when opening a new account, many of these things are fixable given enough blood, sweat, and tears. The real dangers are things that are unfixable once they start. Think about these scenarios for a moment.
With offline purchases being tied to your online identities, companies can make hundreds or thousands of data point connections and draw statistical conclusions based on what tens or hundreds of millions of people are doing. Google has access to, at least, 70% of credit card purchases and are linking them to you as you read this.
Some might argue that none of these things are happening now and it's all unbridled paranoia and fear mongering. Unfortunately, this isn't remotely new and is increasingly becoming more common across the world.
In 2000, Amazon was called out for charging different customers different prices for DVDs. They stated it was "random" but no one truly knows what criteria they were focusing on. It's fairly uncommon for a retailer to test price changes without a purpose to see what type of people buy what items.
In 2012, WSJ did an investigation on Staples and found that they [Staples] displayed different prices based on your location.
A Wall Street Journal investigation found that the Staples Inc. website displays different prices to people after estimating their locations. More than that, Staples appeared to consider the person's distance from a rival brick-and-mortar store, either OfficeMax Inc. or Office Depot Inc. ODP 2.56% If rival stores were within 20 miles or so, Staples.com usually showed a discounted price.
Also in 2012, WSJ also found that Orbitz charged Mac users up to 30% more for their hotels.
Orbitz Worldwide Inc. has found that people who use Apple Inc.'s Mac computers spend as much as 30% more a night on hotels, so the online travel agency is starting to show them different, and sometimes costlier, travel options than Windows visitors see.
In 2014, WashingtonPost did an investigation of their own across multiple ecommerce sites. Here's some of the interesting tidbits they found.
For example, Travelocity reduced the prices on 5 percent of hotel rooms shown in search results by around $15 per night for smartphone users. Interestingly, Cheaptickets and Orbitz gave unadvertised “Members Only” discounts of about $12 per night on 5 percent of hotels rooms to users who were logged-in to their accounts on the site.
...
Expedia and Hotels.com conduct what marketers and engineers call A/B tests to steer a subset of their users toward more expensive hotels. [...] In this case, visitors to Expedia and Hotels.com were randomly assigned to groups A, B or C based on the cookies stored on their computers. Users in groups A and B were shown hotels with an average price of $187 a night, while users in group C were shown hotels with an average price of $170/night.
...
Home Depot served almost completely different products to users on desktops versus mobile devices. A desktop user searching Home Depot typically received 24 search results, with an average price per item of $120. In contrast, mobile users receive 48 search results, with an average price per item of $230. Bizarrely, products are also $0.41 more expensive on average for Android users.

How to combat this

In store, it's fairly simple. Good old fashioned cold hard cash reigns supreme. There's no way to tie your purchase directly to your (assuming you don't give them a rewards account). Their system will still log the transaction, but it won't have your name sitting right beside it, which is the entire point.
For those that don't want to carry "tons of cash" with them, a non reloadable* vanilla prepaid Visa card is great alternative. For a small fee (usually $5 - $7), you can go to the gas station, buy a card, and preload a few hundred bucks on to a card to use in whatever store you please. Transactions can be tracked by the card number but it's still fairly limited compared to a bank card due to no name attached which, again, is the entire point. However, if you just toss your prepaid card in the trash, someone can pick it up and that cards transactions with the information on the back of the card.
*You need a non reloadable card because reloadable ones typically ask for SSN.
Online purchases are just as easy but they require a couple other steps. You can use a service such as Privacy.com or Blur to generate prepaid cards on the fly to use for online purchases. You link your bank or card to them and simply go to the website to generate a card when you make an online purchase. These are great because (for Privacy.com) you can use any name and email address you want. For Blur, you use their specific address. It feels good when you can use Bobbert McBobsen at 123 Main St in Beverly Hills when buying your new rice cooker online.
*These services are generally US only. Unfortunately, there isn't really a similar service in other parts of the world.
Like in store, you can purchase a non reloadable vanilla Visa card at your local shop, load it up, and use it online to similar effect.
A third option, for the retailers that accept it, is cryptocurrency. Most of them are not truly private but offer substantially more privacy compared to your Chase credit card. Bitcoin is the most commonly accepted but others are starting to show up as well. For most people, prepaid cards are simpler and work in just about every case, unlike crypto.

Final thoughts

It's well worth the time and effort to build new habits around using cash or prepaid cards. Not only for today but for your future. Never forget that once your information is out there, there's no taking it back. With that said, don't stress or worry about the past. The overwhelming majority has used debit/credit cards or signed up for rewards accounts but starting today, you no longer have to feed the machine. As your data ages with nothing new coming it, it becomes less valuable, less accurate, and less trustworthy to companies.
The saying "the best time to plant a tree is 20 years ago, the next best time is right now" applies just as well to privacy.
For those interested in keeping up with my privacy posts, I keep them all over at /gimtayida
submitted by gimtayida to privacy [link] [comments]

Investigation of (Dis-)Favor 1\3 questioning freedom of will (in Macro-society)

This item began as a simple idea to investigate "social construct" theory, a trendy theme in academia and identity politics. It turned into a staggeringly complex constellation of ideas, with surprises galore.
The idea occurs to me: validate (or not) 'social construction' of beauty. If not, then sense of beauty is innate (source is not one's society, but genetic or other episocial influences).
Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry 2016 | plos (technical study)
Reading in Contemporary Aesthetics "Why Beauty Still Cannot Be Measured", by Ossi Naukkarinen, because beauty is a personal determination, and a metaphor of favor, but how is it determined? Example: which of these women looks beautiful to you? note: only descriptor for the AI search is "beautiful woman", AI learns about beauty by sifting mega-data; how effective is it? (achieves given goal?) AI results are socially constructed in the most explicit way possible! Beauty may not be measurable, but it can be selected (parsed) from non-beauty. Measurement is a comparison of some phenomenon to an abstract dimension. Selection is a go, no-go choice.
What is Nudge theory? This item straddles the fence between Macro and Micro societies, paradigmatic Nudges come from Macro sources, but include an option to choose without pressure to conform. Micro sources are always more direct; which side of the fence are you on, friend?. (Greener side, of course.)
What about searching for "good", images? note how often the WORD good is pictured. Good is a language construct that must be interpreted from the individual's perspective.
Ok, now search for "favor" images note that AI mostly interprets favor as a small gift, not as a preference (which is difficult to represent by image)
Well then, search for "preference", images note that the word preference happens to be used by a line of hair care products from L'Oreal, which dominates the returns... commerce rules!
social construct (def, search result)
validate (or not) 'social construction' of beauty
Is Socialism a social construct? (LoL) Socialism Defined (EVERY Country is Socialist!) 2.2k views Sep 29, 2019 Rokn'MrE
To (social) Construct, or Not to (social) Construct, is there a choice? (note most results are about gender)
Parsing gender
Discussion of gender is not my direction of choice in this part 1 investigation. I want to seek how an actor (esp. me) makes a choice, in a quest for freedom of will. Perhaps come back to gender in a future item.
person makes a choice, in a quest for freedom of will (selections available)
Exemplar Hyp (Harry) Frankfurt’s compatibilist theory of free will 2009 5pg.pdf
I notice my choice of article was partly determined, partly free, but parsing out those factors would be too much divergence from the goal here. But Truth (a two side coin) is my story, and I'm stickin' to it.
(previous link, compatibilism):
3 It explains our intuition that human beings, but not lower animals, have free will. Lower animals lack free will because they lack the second-order volitions which are constitutive of free will. (This item is unnecessary and probably not true; how do we know animals have no "second-order volitions"? Having no other language than "body", we can only surmise (guess) what their volitions are. Volitions come before actions, we cannot see them or interpret them in any way. Brain conditions might be interpreted with MRI scanning, but to put a subject in a scanning device is to prevent any other actions. Such measuring ruins the connection between mental state and volition being measured, except we can safely assume that every measurement of animals must default to the volition to escape the measuring device.)
That's the first-order, highlighted deviation from compatibility theory. Clarification of "second-order volition": a path from choice to action has an intermediate "middle-way" tunneling mode, contracting (taking on) a desire to make a choice, prior to making the choice. In order to prove freedom, one must establish the mental preference for an imagined outcome in order to prove that preference did come from within the person and was not forced by other external deciding factors (genetic factors are pre-determined).
incompatibilism Note: the approach is wrong by the universal assumption, IOW that the intersection of determined and free is zero. It's a supremacy position, or superposition principle (LoL), the error is in over-simplification. The Logic Argument (p.5) is not representative of reality, which is more nuanced. Therefore, Frankfurt's thesis is good (denial of incompatibilism), but not due to the case presented (superposition).
Take Frankfurt's case (p.4) of Black vs Jones4 to be analogy for State vs Individual. Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars (other sources exist, search for yourself)
The (myusername) determinism/free-will duality hypothesis (denial of incompatibilism due to non-zero intersection):
Most choices, including the choice of desires, are determined by contingencies of which one is the natural desire of the actor to optimize his/her outcomes ("best wishes"). Is a person always compelled to have best wishes? What is best depends on a person's mental state, which is usually determined by external factors, but those can vary in cogency (impact on behavior). Consider the choice to commit suicide, certainly not a trivial choice. (The Chosen means of execution (puns intended) is somewhat more trivial, but again, partly determined by external conditions.)
Some choices, nearly all trivial, are free because no interfering contingencies are apparent during the choosing interlude. It may happen in hindsight, that a past choice is observed to be a mistake, usually because some contingency was overlooked or unknown during the choosing. This observation should be remembered so as to avoid repeating a future choice like that mistake. Choices always have risks, including the choice to do nothing.
Different day, slightly different approach... parsing choice. 1 important choices that have many deep effects later, for instances a marriage partner, a new job, a new residence; 2 trivial choices which have minor effects, risks or physical involvement, for instances a choice of toothpaste at the market, to like or not a web-link or museum exhibit.
According to (myusername)'s determined/free paradigm, type 1 choices are nearly all determined by pre-existing conditions (not free). Type 2 choice is the arena of freedom. I suppose a person's low risk-aversion parameter could expand the envelope of freedom, but that's a characteristic that develops during maturation, one's history of choices and ensuing responses. Successful responses lead to more freedom, failures to less. So even when freedom exists, it accumulates a history (habits) which become a determinant.
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder (it's contagious) Take 1:
How does an actor (person in question who comes to an internal state, or inner-construct) interact with a community or society? Must it be IRL, or can virtual interaction suffice to construct internal states? And more to my point, must the interaction be two-way (containing feedback), or simply via broadcast medium? (broadcast includes published books, articles, records, radio, TV or Internet A/V shows, etc.)
Interaction with broadcast media can be summarized by: a choice, a degree of attention and focus (time spent on and attention given to item), a like/dislike or more complex reaction to item, having future behavior influenced by item, to continue a stream of behaviors (especially sequential item choices) as consequence of influence of item, to develop a complex of attitudes built upon stream of items (eg. just mentioned 'risk aversion parameter and habit).
Before going on, I notice that broadcast media is like Sunshine, Rain, and Grace. It is made available by participation in a community, and falls without curse or blessing, it's all there for the choosing (or ignoring), depending on the contingencies.
Mind control theory? (because mind is the inner source of volition... behavior, control the mind (easy), hence control the behaviors (difficult otherwise))
Mind control courtesy Tavistock Inst.
Construction of Favor (or any knowledge) upon Familiarity
What is Social Construction? (cntrlZ)
"For instance, trees are only differentiated from other plants by virtue of the fact that we have all learned to see them as "trees."
But we don't all know about trees to an equal degree. I know rather much about trees from my interaction with them: living among them, planting them, sawing them, moving them, burning them, etc., not from reading or talking about them. No doubt, there are many persons all over the world who have very little experience of trees, and cannot 'construct' treeness as well as me. Direct experience is more realistic and developed than social constructs.
Favor and Familiarity are interwoven by choice
I chose to live alone with trees and not alone with sea, or desert (for examples), because it was easier to go with trees. Was the choice free? I could have chosen city or suburb with even more ease than forest, so ease of choice was not the deciding factor, it was my preference of lonely forest over crowded urb that decided me. So maybe it wasn't really about trees, it was about independence or something else like that. When we choose, we may not understand the contingencies, but our decision (choice) may be due to habits or patterns that have developed in the maturity process. Habits are strong determinants, and they develop, according to Ian Plowman, 4 ways.
The cntrlZ article makes the case for 'Strong Social Construction' based on that 'knowing' which is all about language, certainly a social construct.
Within the social construction of language is the game. Outside the social construction is reality, the real world. (a list of social constructs follows)
That makes it clear. Experiences (direct ones) without resort to language are NOT social constructs. That observation makes another distinction clear: gender may be a social construct, as it's a language issue, but sex is not a social construct, it is a direct experience issue that develops in the maturation process: birth, infant, child, puberty, sexy adolescent, sexy adult, old (unsexy) adult, death. Prior to puberty, sex is incipient in its development, but comes to life, (like a flower blooms) after a decade or so. Knowing about sex as a child is by observation from outside (thru the looking glass), after puberty, it's direct experience, and much later, it's a fading memory.
Regarding Looking-glass self theory the notion of socially constructed identity (defining the self by differences/ affinities to others),
... the outcome of "taking the role of the other", the premise for which the self is actualized. Through interaction with others, we begin to develop an identity of our own as well as developing a capacity to empathize with others... Therefore, the concept of self-identity may be considered an example of a social construction.
... makes a spurious expansion of identity formation to include everyone (a unity), or nearly so. According to Reisman's Lonely Crowd, there is a triality of social nature, expounded by parsing people into tradition, inner, and other directed personalities. This theme was a scholar's response to the US trend toward consumerism and conformity to "norms", (local traditions, eg. "keeping up with the Joneses") mid-20th century. The social construct crowd would be Reisman's Other directed personality, which may truly be the majority, in USA certainly. However, the tradition-following and inner-directed personalities are a significant minority. Let's not ignore them (I'm in there.)
What is “Mob Mentality?”
Herd mentality | wkpd
Are All Personality Descriptions Social Constructions? Sep.2019 | psytdy
... that objective reality does not directly reveal itself to us, is true beyond a doubt.
The preceding statement author, JA Johnson, is way off (and his article is full of falseness). Objective reality IS direct experience, no more revealing modality exists. Denial of this obvious fact (just lied about above) is a redefinition of the term (a social construct). Experience is beyond language, thus beyond 'description'. However the following is a true reveal about (((Yews))) (the like of whom Dr. Johnson seems):
It is true that when we describe someone with socially undesirable traits... we are constructing for them a social reputation that might decrease their chance of success in life. This is precisely one of the concerns of (((social constructivists, like Dr. Johnson))), that certain categorizations (eg. a separate race) reduce power and status.
Proof that Truth is not a social construct (relative to culture, like morality absolutely is)... What do you believe in? Cultural Relativism
Conformity is a social construct (should be obvious, it's a social source of choices). What causes conformity? Social interactions, which traditionally occurred (Macro-version) in newspapers, magazines, cinema and radio programs. As culture changed the popular media to radio, TV and then to Internet, and church attendance fell out of vogue, the advertising industry became more powerful in defining social constructs. That's why Internet censorship is so important.
Who are the 'influencers' in society? (They used to be parents, teachers, peers... now it seems to be YouTubers, like PewDiePie. But an intentionally underplayed contingent of influencers is the predominantly Left-Leaning academia, who collectively promote Marxist preferences and political activism toward Socialist positions. Academia is pushing social construction because it provides an intellectual framework that denies the old (social injustice), and says ok to their preferred ideology, Cultural Marxism (new social "just us"; socially constructed ideas can be anything you want, their cogency depends on efficacy of publication).
Micro-Social Constructs are most cogent (due to conformity being human nature), discussed in part 2.
Bottom Line (part 1)
If you like freedom, and are serious about it, you must distance yourself from society, because it tries to reconstruct you according to the norm... conform!
Before you go, think about what is a hermit?, which should not be confused with Hermetic, name derived from Greek god Hermes. 7 Great Hermetic Principles – The Teachings of Thoth (illustrated)... same topic 2016
Investigation of (Dis-)Favor 2\3, Micro-Societies
Social Circles; Mates, Kin, Friends
note on Mates: school-, (prison) in-, marriage-, ship-, etc. note on my link choices, page rank has a strong influence
Social group (aka circle)
Is Conformity Human Nature? Don't blow this list off, if you want to understand social constructs. At least look at first item.
What is Social Proof?
Are Micro-societies any less 'constructing' than Macros? Or do some constructs exist for all realms, macro and micro? I think they are more constructing, because micros carry feedback, whereas macro is all absorption, individuals have negligible effects on society at large. They act in a statistical sense, with a few exceptions.
Concept vs Percept (concepts are stable mental recordings, and physical manifestations of them; percepts are changing sensations and reflexes which depend strongly on the situation, memories of which are variable too)
Favor, Good, and Beauty are words that belong in the same 'conceptual basket' (ward), they are alike, all refer to action 'like', as an affective (and affirmative) perception. Conversely for the word's opposites.
Perceptions are non-language reactions to stimuli, therefore not social constructs. They may be evoked into a social arena via language (or other virtual records), but these are only shadows of the perception, so what is evoked is drawn up from the receiver's own memories of perceptions.
Division of Labor (and role models) are Social Constructs
Sex is the most basic divider of labor, for all societies, especially the most primitive. As societies develop towards more technical, sex falls away from the divider, as natural talent and innate interest gain influence, until the basic operations of reproduction remain, the core division. What about rankings in the division?
natural tendency for dominance?
Are males naturally dominant in nature? | qra
(arguments opposing) Male Dominance (theory) with (bogus) "Explanations", by 2 feminist authors using Marxist ideology 2017 | verso While this blog seems to have obvious (to me) flaws, it does raise interesting ideas and references.
what attributes help males gain social status? Basic: status is competitive. It takes talent and effort to win.
To Raise Male Status (18 Rules) | @rctvmn (not because age 18 is best)
Dominance vs Prestige 2010 | psytdy Note: blatant bias toward Prestige via argument parsing Pride. (author is Jewish, maligns DJ Trump (nationalist), lauds John Lennon (globalist))
modes of thought: socially-controlled vs spontaneous
Major Component of Social-Construction: Public Education 3 Modes of Thought Jan.2019
Kaufman again: How Renaissance People Think 2011 | psytdy Note: We discussed concept vs percept, here Kaufman refers to fellow-Jew Seymour Epstein's dual modish rational vs experiential theory, same idea set.
polymath (short for Renaissance Man)
Favor-Goodness-Beauty paradigm
Favor is not favored in prior art, Truth takes Favor's place in the Transcendental Spectrum: Transcendentals 5pg.pdf
We have already seen the idea in part 1 that Truth is a disputed transcendental in the social-constructionism academic universe. Academics use the "universal fallacy" that their favored item is part of an incompatible pair, which by logic excludes everything not in their favor. They want to ignore the nuances in order to push an ideology toward a supremacy of thinking, just like in a totalitarian state.
Whereas the (myusername) principle of Truth, it has a dual nature, 1 relative to a society (democratic consensus); and 2 absolute to reality (math/science/technology). So 'Favor' is a better term because objective proof (no contest) is not required (except the meaning of objective that says 'objection!', meaning 'contest'). 'Favor' implies bias which is the subjective reaction that matches Goodness and Beauty better than 'Truth'.
Apply Truth-Goodness-Beauty paradigm to social construction
it is unconcerned with ontological issues...
because the aim of constructionists is to justify a collective "truth" of their own construction. A social construct is not absolute, it's anything a society wants it to be ("social proof"). That's a good description of tyranny... The Empowered Female Parasite 2014 (that's a surprising result, here is one not-surprising.)
Social Proof: established by culture media (mind control, a monopoly 2012 (scroll down long graphic), of the Juice 2015), go back to part 1, macrosocial constructs.
Does Appreciation of Beauty have any innate sources? (otherwise it's all a social construct) Neuroscience of Beauty; How does the brain appreciate art? 2011 | sciam (in brain)
Onward (Dis)-Favor Readers...
Investigation of (Dis-)Favor 3\3, House of Not-Friends
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder Take 2
Living outside the 'Normitory" (away from Dreamland (everybody's asleep), to where Nessun Dorma (nobody sleeps))
It so happens that an ethnic group which originated in eastern Mediterranean Middle-East evolved to specialize in intelligence, commerce, morally corrupt enterprises, and crime. Essential to their success was eugenic traditions that applied artificial selection to just those same specialties, which makes this ethnic group a formidable enemy. They have developed a very strong sense of in-groupness, and a vested interest in social construct studies. A unified collective is a more effective competitor than an inchoate population of diverse individuals.
This group has as ethnic traits: global dispersion (aka Diaspora), preference for urban environments (aka Cosmopolitan, or Globalist), covert inter-group rivalry (aka InfoWar), and deception (aka MOSSAD). This cosmopolitan group must operate covertly and deceptively, because those are effective tactics, and they are a small minority (2% of USA), therefore weak in the democratic sense.
Immoral Social Constructs enforced by 5th column subversives
wethefifth (political audio series)
serendipity: freethink
Another construct search, without gender reference
Is morality a social construct? If so, how can concepts such as 'good' exist? (note especially the links in top comment, to reddit posts)
"Good" can be understood as a variation of "Favor" as a direct experience (perception) of "like", rather than some idealized notion of an obvious social construct such as "greater good" (a theoretical derivation by interventionist actors-with-agendas trying to impose their own preferences upon others, IOW ideology hegemony pushers, for instance viz da wiz)
Cultural hegemony is the Chosen's mitzvah, that we all must go to Emerald City, land of Oz, where YHWH (impostor) rules.
Cultural hegemony
Concepts of Ideology, Hegemony, and Organic Intellectuals in Gramsci’s Marxism 1982
There is no universal morality. Morality is much like Beauty, in the mind of beholder (actor who holds to a specific moral code). Morality is a social construct, and varies between societies. (I think a fair definition of morality is a code of ethics which is community-specific.) For a society to sustain, it needs to be isolate from conflicting societies. If different societies, with different moralities must coexist, the natural tendency for actors in the same niche toward dominance will destroy or remake the subordinate societies, which reduces the conflicts.
Status Hierarchies: Do We Need Them? blog 2012 | psytd
a need for 'virtue signaling'? It's natural, and likely unavoidable, evidence pride displays.
Status Assignments: by birth (heredity) or merit (talent)?
Let's assume your morality values social effectiveness. The best path to that is to have talented persons dominant (meritocracy). Next we happen to know that talent is hereditary, but not perfectly so. Therefore birth (kinship, aka kingship) is only an indicator of talent, which is infrequent among low status groups, much higher among high status kinship groups. Thus we must conclude that awarding status by pedigree and family privilege is not the best way to effectiveness, but it often does work. What works best then, must be? a competitive system of merit-proving, with special attention to high-status families. (Helps if the natural tendency for snobbish repression is circumvented, for examples Han-style Civil Service Exams, and the Roman military promotion avenue, which occasionally led to top gun.)
Sustainable Competitive Advantages (aka moats): Network Effects 2019 | sEknα
Our Brain's Negative Bias 2003 | psytdA
Fear: it's the greatest (motivator) 2009 Owen Benjamin made a video about Fear over TIME 16 min.
Dominance Hierarchy employs FEAR to dominate
Dominance hierarchy | wkpd Social dominance theory | wkpd
scaring children is not ok, Sydney Watson blog 11 min
tools for social mobility and dominance (list)
9 Important Factors That Influence Social Mobility Social dominance orientation | wkpd SDO should theoretically be highly important to Jews, as their ethos tends strongly to emulate it among themselves and denigrate it towards outgroups (Goyim). Thus we should expect to see this field of study monopolized by Jewish scholars. Studying the Gentile: Fanciful Pseudoscience in the Service of Pathologizing the Covington Boys | OO
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder Take 3
Different day from Take 2. Re-consider interactions with a community or society: traditionally occurred locally, on Sunday meetings at church, parties, having a beer after work, town hall or children's group meetings, (eg. PTA, scouts) etc.
Re-consider "contracting". Original idea was meant to acquire, like a disease, not by design (choice), but determined by contingency (unlucky chance). Today, "contracting" means getting smaller, shrinking, like a cooling branding iron, or melting ice. Iron has several crystalline phases, the cooler, the more compact (more atomic order). Ice is contrary to most materials, as its crystalline structure is larger than its liquid phase, so as it melts (entropy always increases, going to less ordered) its atoms become more fluid. In both cases, the natural mode of change is toward ambient temperature. This trend (recursion to the mean) is maybe the most unbroken law of all physics.
Re-considering "Disorder"; original idea was meant as a mental disease, like ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder), IOW anomalous condition, out-of-order, (order being assumed normal) in the human behavior dimension. Today it means individuals out-of-line, like discontinuities in a crystal. (Discontinuities are what make metal harder.)
When all the atoms of a metal are aligned (continuous), the state is called "annealed". This is the softest condition. When the metal has been "work hardened" by hammering, or forging, it acquires discontinuities (crystalline order becomes mucked up). This is a harder state. Hardness is measured by forcing a small ball into a test material and measuring the resulting depression (dent). Discontinuities resist dents and every other kind of deforming force (decreased plasticity (weakness) means increased elasticity and maximum yield (resilience, see Young's Modulus, Indentation hardness, Impact Toughness and Moh's Hardness)).
Now make analogy of metal with society. Non-conformist individuals (like followers of Marginotions) make society (if he-he-heeded) more resistant to outside forces (like George Soros, or seekers of Tikkun Olam) trying to make a dent in the established order (tradition, Protestant Ethic).
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder Take 4
Different day Re-consider "contracting" again. Today, it means make-a-deal, as in commercial contract. This kind of contract is in flux nowadays, as the advent of bitcoin has introduced a mathematical means of authorizing legal agreements (aka contracts) in a distributed ledger that makes such agreements social in a very direct sense. The social part of "social construct" is present in a world wide network of participating computer operators, while the construct part is present in a software package (app) that is now called "smart", meaning has built-in security and ongoing timely operations, like confirmation checking. In this contract-paradigm, the "disorder" part is due to it being outside of previous power-holding elites who are chagrined by the prospect of losing some of their powers to the Internetwork, which is out of their control. IOW disorder for elites, and made-to-order for independents. (note on that quote)
Social Contract per britannica (briefly) per wkpd
explicit vs implicit contracts Differences Between Implicit & Explicit Agreements (law) 2017 more specific, social contracts Social Contract Theory UT (includes videos, glossary)
to be continued: fairness is a social construct (contrast with deterministic fate)
study notes (all 3 parts, this series)
Gentrification, Displacement and the Role of Public Investment: A Literature Review 2015 pdf
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Owen+Benjamin+made+video+about+Fear&atb=v81-4__&ia=videos
why is 'social construct' a popular theme?
https://www.success.com/8-daily-habits-to-build-your-mental-strength/
Pareto principle implications for marital harmony, a very brief summary of research by J Cacioppo)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_society
https://thejewishwars.blogspot.com/2019/03/aipac-traitor-jews-having-successfully.html
https://theevilofzionismexposedbyjews.weebly.com/14-what-zionist-and-anti-zionist-jews-have-said-about-education.html
submitted by acloudrift to AlternativeHypothesis [link] [comments]

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submitted by mahikhan485 to u/mahikhan485 [link] [comments]

[Sunday, November 25 2018] Sir David Attenborough to take 'people's seat' at UN Climate Change Conference 2018 in Poland; Russia 'fires on and seizes Ukraine ships'; Airlines face crack down on use of 'exploitative' algorithm that splits up families on flights; Bitcoin sinks below $4,000

/worldnews

/news

/science

  • mvea
    Scientists have developed catalysts that can convert carbon dioxide – the main cause of global warming – into plastics, fabrics, resins and other products. The discovery, based on the chemistry of artificial photosynthesis, is detailed in the journal Energy & Environmental Science.
    Comments || Link

/technology

  • mvea
    [Title Post] Bitcoin sinks below $4,000 as the crypto market takes another hefty beating
    Comments || Link

/askscience

  • callmemateo
    Could a single celestial body be as large as the Milky Way galaxy? If not, what is restricting the size of it?
    Comments

/AskReddit

/explainlikeimfive

/todayilearned

  • SuperHaker
    TIL that Timothy Ray Brown is considered to be the first person cured of HIV/AIDS. Brown had chemotherapy and a bone marrow transplant to treat leukaemia. His transplant came from someone with a natural genetic resistance to HIV. He was cured of HIV but scientists don’t fully understand why.
    Comments || Link

/movies

/sports

/Art

/television

  • OVEIDPTVZSEU
    Nickelodeon’s early days were ‘loose and crazy,’ says Rocko’s Modern Life creator
    Comments || Link

/WritingPrompts

  • FinestDepression
    [WP] You are an office worker in NYC in the year of 1999. You go for a cigarette break, but the elevator stops working and you get trapped in it for 2h. As the doors finally open, you walk out and see a brand new lobby, people holding thin digital cards and big screen TV's. It's the year 2018.
    Comments

/OldSchoolCool

  • bittybambi
    Clint Eastwood at home in Sherman Oaks, California, (1960's).
    Comments || Link
  • sassafras711
    My grandfather and great-grandmother in 1941. He always wanted to be a pilot in the Air Force but wasn’t allowed to because of his colorblindness.
    Comments || Link

/pics

/gifs

/oddlysatisfying

/mildlyinteresting

/interestingasfuck

/MostBeautiful

/aww

  • AelinSA
    Three comfy floofs
    Comments || Link
  • December2nd
    My kitten bringing his new toy to his older, incredibly fearful and shy older brother to check out. Probably the cutest thing I’ve ever recorded.
    Comments || Link
  • YanagimoriYuuki
    This is not my cat. I do not know this cat. But a friend shared this pic on FB and I had to give it a signal boost.
    Comments || Link

/Awwducational

  • Mass1m01973
    Penguins can’t fly. But they can get airborne. The secret technique that penguins use involves wrapping their bodies in a cloak of air bubbles – and it turns out to be the same technique that engineers use to speed the movement of ships and torpedoes through water
    Comments || Link

Something New

Everyday we’ll feature a selected small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.

Today's subreddit is...

/catssittingdown

Its top 3 all time posts
submitted by kaunis to tldr [link] [comments]

Wheels Within Wheels

And their appearance and their work was as it were, a wheel in the middle of a wheel.
— Ezekiel 1:16
Matt collapsed back in his chair, defeated. He'd been awake for 43 hours at this point, and he was essentially out of options. If he wanted to have anything at all to show for in 8 hours at the competition, he needed to start the compiler now.
This year's undergraduate robotics competition involved autonomously navigating an underwater maze to retrieve a simulated submarine escape pod.
His responsibility had been designing the navigation system used to get to the pod, and he'd chosed to base the design on a species of pufferfish, Torquigener tetraodontidae, known for constructing large circular geometric patterns underwater in order to attract potential mates. Neural simulations based on aquatic animals generally performed very well in this type of environment, and it stood to reason that this pufferfish might be especially suited due to it's apparent ability to process complicated geometric patterns.
So far he'd been able to successfully abstract out the pufferfish's motor cortex and get it to control the AUV's thrusters, but no matter what he'd tried he hadn't been able to figure out it's visual cortex or sensory mechanisms. He could potentially just simulate the pufferfish brain directly, but usually that took a lot of processing power, and he wasn't sure if the AUV's processor would be able to handle it.
At this point, he just had to hope the compiler would be able to optimize it enough to at least work, even if it couldn't run fast enough to be competitive.
Dejectedly, he set it running, and fell asleep in his chair.
Matt awoke with a start to sunlight streaming in onto his face. He checked the time - 12:30 - and started scrolled through his notifications before suddenly remembering he needed to be at the competition in 15 minutes.
He hastily grabbed the AUV and stuffed it in his bag with his laptop, only sparing a glance to ensure everything had compiled, before running as quickly as he could from the Computer Science Department to the Richards Building pool where the competition was being held.
"You got it figured out?" Jessica called to him as he arrived panting to the competition area.
"I ... I think so?" Matt gasped, trying to catch his breath. The optimization report had said it had managed to fit the simulation onto the AUV's processor. He pulled the AUV out of his bag and handed it to her. "It will work, I'm pretty sure."
Jessica had been responsible for the mechanical design of the project, and she'd also been the one to who'd gotten him the neural scan he'd used as a basis for the programming.
"Mike messaged me and he should be here in - nnng there he is." she said, turning as she spotted Mike making his way through the light crowd.
Mike had done a lot of the electrical design, but more importantly he had also been the one who'd gotten most of their funding — apparently his uncle had made an absurd amount of money off the "bitcoin boom" in the thirties, and was only too glad to use some of it to help fund his nephew's education.
"Hey we ready?" he asked once he'd gotten to them.
Matt nodded. "Let's go."
After attaching their 3D printed navigation target (a plastic tile in the shape of the ridges from a pufferfish circle) to the simulated pod and lowering it into the water, Matt hadn't been sure what he'd expected.
It turned out, their AUV performed very well. Well enough to win the competition. And in fact, well enough that they had initially been suspected of cheating by hardcoding the maze or controlling it remotely. (This was resolved by running it through a new, randomly generated layout, and examining the hardware to make sure there wasn't a reciever that would allow remote control.) The AUV just zipped through the maze, following pretty much the idea route first time, and their time to retrieve the capsule came in just under a third that of the next fastest team.
This was despite the fact that they had accidentally dropped the AUV beforehand, and while Matt had hoped nothing too serious had broken, the tinkle of glass from the camera had told him that was a lie.
His teammate's were overjoyed of course, and didn't really suspect anything, but Matt knew they hadn't just done well, they'd done impossibly well.
Matt got back to his apartment, set the AUV on his desk and powered it on, before unzipping his bag to pull out the 3D printed tile. Immediately the AUV's thrusters spun up, and he zipped his bag shut to go shut it off, but as soon as he zipped it closed it shut off. He opened the zipper a tiny bit. Nothing. Opened it a bit more, and immediately the thrusters spun up again until he zipped it back closed.
This was weird.
After disconnecting the thrusters (running them in air could potentially cause them to overheat) and wiring up a display, he pulled the tile back out. As he had kind-of expected by this point, the display immediately reacted, and as he moved the tile around the display readout changed to match the direction to the tile.
He continued disconnecting various components, trying to isolate the cause. He quickly eliminated the broken camera and the acoustic sensors, and after a few minutes all he had left was the bare processor board, attached to the power supply and the display. Still the display consistently read out the direction to the tile.
This was very weird.
Matt knew he ought to be studying for his finals, but he didn't care.
He'd spent the rest of the weekend going through the software and hardware, eliminating pieces to try and figure out how it worked. The pufferfish neural simulation appeared to be a necessary component, but he had eliminated nearly everything else that wasn't in some way required to run that simulation. Frustratingly, all of his attempts to observe the simulation as it was running all caused it to stop working, but he was eventually able to pare the simulation to a single cluster of about 40 neurons that appeared to be responsible for this behavior. None of them were related to any of the sensory corticies, and in fact most of them weren't even connected to each other.
So far he'd learned that the range of the effect was somewhat limited, as the further away the tile got, the weaker and less reliable the readings became. By about 10 meters away, there would be about a 50/50 chance of a correct reading, and while this could be compensated for by taking several readings, there wasn't a lot that could be done to go much further than that.
By chance he'd also discovered that some types of plastics would block or hinder the effect. He'd put the processor board in a plastic enclosure to protect it, and was at first confused when it had suddenly stopped working, then started again as soon as he re-opened the enclosure. The AUV's hull hadn't caused issues though, and he tried several different enclosures to find one that worked. So far he'd discovered that polyethylene and polystyrene block it, but nylon and ABS have no effect. And in testing this, he'd found that for plastics that do block the effect, the reading would actually deflect around the sheet towards any openings over a particular size.
This at least explained how this effect had allowed the AUV to navigate the underwater maze so efficiently.
Different materials appeared to impede the effect more than others, as well. Lower grades of polyethylene were less effective at blocking it, and at a low enough grade it could penetrate if the material was thin enough. He'd discovered this part placing the tile in a shopping bag, which had diminished (but not completely blocked) the signal.
At this point, Matt still had no idea how the device was able to detect the tile, but the fact of the matter is that it could, and it was able to do so much more efficiently than even the best current technologies. He wasn't exactly sure what he'd want to use it for, but if he figured out a way to overcome the range limitations this could have hundreds of potential uses, and even if not, it would still be quite valuable. Especially given that it was so cheap to make — his setup consisting of a hobbyist-grade neural processor and a cheap 3D printed part had only cost about $300!
He also knew that if he wanted to develop this properly, he needed money. Not just to use for experimentation (although there were several things he wanted to try) but also to be able to patent the device to ensure he'd be able to profit off of it.
He'd met up with his team on the second floor of the student center.
"Whaddup, my bro from another hoe." Mike greeted him.
"Don't be vulgar, Mike." Jessica scolded him.
"So, I've done some more work with the navigation system I used for the competition, and I think we might actually have something worth developing further." Matt began.
"Yeah, that was awesome man, we totally wrecked everyone at the competition."
"What do you mean?" Jessica asked.
Matt pulled the processor board and the tile out of his bag. He'd put together a quick visualization earlier, and turned his laptop to show them. "I'm still not completely sure why it works, but the pufferfish neural simulation I based the navigation on is somehow still able to pick up the location of this tile, even without any obvious sensing mechanism."
He handed the tile to them, as the 3D model on screen moved in tandem with it.
Mike picked it up. "That's pretty neat."
Jessica was a bit more skeptical. "So like what, magic?"
"I honestly don't know, although there's a few possibilities I haven't ruled out completely. But whatever it's doing, it's able to locate the tile on par with most room-scale VR setups, using less than a percent of the compute power those systems need, and with hardware costing only a tenth as much."
Mike slapped his hand onto the table. "I'm in."
"What?" Matt was put off-base.
"You're gonna drop out and start a company and develop this stuff. I said I'm in."
"I'm not dropping out! I don't even have that kind of money, and there's a million and one other things beside!"
"Don't worry about it, my uncle'll give us a loan. He's been well, not exactly pressuring me, but he'd love this sort of thing. You in Jess?"
"I'm definitely interested if this pans out, but we can't just abandon schooling."
"Jess, you're either in or out. Are you in, or out?"
"It's not that I don't trust you guys, but that's a rather extraordinary claim, and I'm going to want more evidence than just a cheap demo that could be working any number of ways."
"Jess, in, or out."
She groaned. "Fine. But you'd better be able to provide more solid evidence that this all actually works the way you're claiming."
Wiki | Next
submitted by AJMansfield_ to HFY [link] [comments]

Monero Moon Prize

Announcing the Monero Moon Prize!

I pledge 10,000 Monero to the winner of a competition that begins right now. I will award the prize for completing a task which is very difficult, but not impossible.
The prize of 10,000 Monero will be awarded to the first team or individual to operate a 3D printer on the moon. This 3D printer must use lunar soil as its raw print material and demonstrate that it can reliably produce custom mechanical components.
I have created a set of rules for the competition but I welcome feedback on the details. My desire is that following the competition, the winning team is able to continue to operate the 3D printer on the Moon’s surface and to indefinitely produce parts from lunar soil and sunlight.
 

The Competition

  1. Safely deliver a payload to the surface of the Moon.
  2. Deploy 3D printer and some method of gathering soil for its continued operation.
  3. Print a series of 3 test parts from lunar soil using an additive manufacturing technique which does not rely on external binding agents from Earth. The printer cannot rely on supplies from Earth for its continued manufacture of parts.
  4. Minor manipulation and/or assembly of parts will be required.
  5. The build volume of the printer must be at least 150x150x150mm with dimensional tolerances to within 0.2mm of specifications. (Note: this level of performance is comparable to mid-priced 3D printers currently available in the home market)
  6. The ultimate tensile strength of the parts must be greater than 10 MPa in any direction (about 1/3 that of common glass).
  7. The winning team must meet these objectives on or before December 19, 2022; or 50 years since man last stepped foot on the Moon. We as a species must not go 50 years before taking our next step towards the Moon’s development.
 

Feasibility

Exponential Increase in Monero’s Value

The value of cryptocurrencies increases exponentially with adoption. A prize purse of 10,000 Monero is currently worth about $120,000. This meager amount is unlikely to incentivize a lunar mission, considering it costs roughly $15 million to launch a 10-kg payload to the Moon [1]. However, if the market adoption of Monero becomes similar to what Bitcoin enjoys today, then the 10,000 Monero prize purse would be roughly a hundred times more valuable (~$12 million) and enough to recoup the majority of launch expenses.
The size of the prize could also increase through donations or pledges made by additional backers. Any team in the competition could offset their own costs by pursuing corporate sponsorships or pairing their entry for the Monero Moon Prize with another competition like the Google Lunar XPRIZE, where a team must have a robot move 500 m on the Moon’s surface[2]. There are many possibilities for adding incentives to this competition, this is simply a first step.

What is Lunar Soil Made Of?

Glass and metal, mostly[3,4]. Aluminum, titanium, tungsten, and iron. Volatiles like ice and many useful trace elements[5,6,7]. Most soil particles are very fine with sharp angles, turned to powder through billions of years of meteoric impact. Older, more weathered particles have small bits of non-oxidized iron on their surface and imbedded within, making them efficiently heated with microwaves [8,9] and levitate in magnetic fields[10].

What Can Lunar Soil be Made Into?

Just about any solid object you can think of. Researchers have turned lunar soil simulant into gears, bolts, bricks, and bunkers[11,12,13,14,15]. They do this by selectively melting the soil in a desired shape and then cooling it until it hardens. Possible heat sources include lasers, microwaves, and concentrated solar, to name a few.
Many technologies in use by DIY maker communities and additive manufacturers can be extended with little modification to the lunar environment. Candidate technologies include selective sintering and fused deposition modeling. In selective sintering, a laser or other heat source is directed at a bed of powder which is partially melted and allowed to re-harden. Here’s a demonstration of how simple the process can be[16,17].
Fused deposition modeling is a type of 3D printing that you are probably most familiar with. Some material, typically plastic, is heated until it can be extruded out of a small nozzle. This extruded material is used to draw a 2D image on a flat surface. The height of the nozzle is then raised and another 2D image is drawn on top of the old. This process continues through many layers until a laminated 3D shape emerges. This technology was recently applied where small beads of optical glass acted as the raw print material[18], a substance not too different from lunar soil[19,20,21].
We can see from these examples that there are at least a few techniques for printing reliable parts from Moon dust. All major technical hurdles have been passed, now it’s just a matter of application-specific design.

Why a prize?

From the Orteig Prize sending aircraft across the Atlantic, to the Ansari XPRIZE sending private manned spacecraft to space, to the ongoing Google Lunar XPRIZE where teams are asked to drive a rover 500 m on the Moon, incentive competitions have simply been shown to work. Prizes are an effective way of directing the efforts of others towards a unified goal with potentially universal utility. I do not care who takes the first step in the extraterrestrial manufacturing revolution, just as long as someone takes it.
Prizes are an excellent investment. The prize backers only spend money if the competition garners a favorable result. The teams are compelled to initially spend their own resources to investigate several parallel designs. Incentive competitions have historically seen teams spend a combined $16 for every $1 used to fund the prize[22,23]; this represents a remarkable 16:1 return on your investment in terms of total R&D!
A competition also adds extraneous benefits. Humans tend to be thrilled by competition. They love the challenge, the race against another pack of humans. A need emerges to quickly find a solution and win at all costs.
Good solutions to the most difficult problems have been found under these conditions and frequently within shortened timeframes. We as a species need the ability to extract material resources from extraterrestrial sources as quickly as possible. I believe an incentive competition is a fast, inexpensive, and exciting way for us all to realize that goal.

Who Am I?

I wish to remain anonymous and feel lucky that this right is afforded to me by Monero. I hold a higher degree in a field related to this competition and would be inclined towards continued technical discussions on these topics.
I will send the pledged funds to a multisig wallet held in escrow once that becomes a possibility, but reserve the right to withdraw my funds from the competition before the stated deadline if it appears that no reasonable effort is being made by any team to win the prize.
 

References

[1]http://www.parabolicarc.com/2010/03/15/send-1pound-payload-moon-950k/
[2]http://lunar.xprize.org/about/guidelines
[3]McKay, David S., et al. "The lunar regolith." Lunar sourcebook (1991): 285-356.
[4]Noble, Sarah. "The Lunar Regolith." (2009).
[5]Duke, Michael B., et al. "Development of the Moon." Reviews in mineralogy and geochemistry 60.1 (2006): 597-655.
[6]Taylor, Jeff, Larry Taylor, and Mike Duke. "Concentrations of Volatiles in the Lunar Regolith." (2007).
[7]Crawford, Ian A. "Lunar resources: A review." Progress in Physical Geography 39.2 (2015): 137-167.
[8]Taylor, Lawrence, et al. "Lunar Dust Problem: From Liability to Asset." 1st space exploration conference: continuing the voyage of discovery. 2005.
[9]Taylor, Lawrence A., and Thomas T. Meek. "Microwave sintering of lunar soil: properties, theory, and practice." Journal of Aerospace Engineering 18.3 (2005): 188-196.
[10]Colwell, J. E., et al. "Lunar surface: Dust dynamics and regolith mechanics." Reviews of Geophysics 45.2 (2007).
[11]Krishna Balla, Vamsi, et al. "First demonstration on direct laser fabrication of lunar regolith parts." Rapid Prototyping Journal 18.6 (2012): 451-457.
[12]Fateri, Miranda, and Andreas Gebhardt. "Process Parameters Development of Selective Laser Melting of Lunar Regolith for On‐Site Manufacturing Applications." International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 12.1 (2015): 46-52.
[13]Indyk, Stephen. Structural members produced from unrefined lunar regolith, a structural assessment. Diss. Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick, 2015.
[14]Lim, Sungwoo, and Mahesh Anand. "In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) derived extra-terrestrial construction processes using sintering-based additive manufacturing techniques–focusing on a lunar surface environment." (2015).
[15]Goulas, Athanasios, et al. "3D printing with moondust." Rapid Prototyping Journal 22.6 (2016): 864-870.
[16]Kayser, Markus. SolarSinter Project: www.markuskayser.com.
[17]Rietema, Menno-Jan. "Design of a solar sand printer." (2013).
[18]Klein, John, et al. "Additive manufacturing of optically transparent glass." 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing 2.3 (2015): 92-105.
[19]Fabes, B. D., and W. H. Poisl. "Processing of glass-ceramics from lunar resources." (1991).
[20]Fabes, B. D., et al. "Melt-processing of lunar ceramics." (1992).
[21]Magoffin, Michael, and John Garvey. "Lunar glass production using concentrated solar energy." Space Programs and Technologies Conference. 1990.
[22]Guthrie, Julian, Branson, Richard, and Hawking, Stephen. How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight. Penguin Press, September, 2016.
[23]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orteig_Prize
 

Addendum: The Philosophical Rant (It’s a long one…)

Things could be so much different than they are. As a species, we have arrived in our current state through a series of steps so complex that the thing we call reality might as well be an arbitrary selection from the possibilities of what could be.
In this reality, our reality, humans have made a massive misstep that has put our society and our species at risk. This glaring bit of poor judgment is ongoing, yet no action is being taken to resolve the situation.
No machines are being built outside of Earth’s orbit.
Even though we are a space faring species, we have no plans for gathering resources from outside of Earth or for building the extraterrestrial infrastructure that is necessary to take humans to other planets and beyond. We are not amassing the arsenal necessary to ward off extinction from asteroid impacts nor are we building the tools we need to fight runaway global warming through sunshades or the like.
We could be building things, lots of things, outside of Earth’s gravity and be permanently expanding our reach into the Cosmos. We can do all of this with existing technology – low tech by today’s standards – the only requirement is a slight shift of human priority.
I want to try in my own way to fill this gap. I want our reality to be different than it is and I think I know how to do that.
We must encourage the tinkerers and the builders to venture into space. And not just be there and exist in space, but to play in it, interact with it. A compelling challenge like the one that I have outlined would bring adventurers, those wary of traditional ways of doing things who take bold steps into new territory. I want to find the people in this world who want to dip their (virtual) hands into the Moon’s soil and pull out an object born from their imagination.
Following the competition, the winning team will have the ability to make parts indefinitely on the surface of the Moon using soil and sunlight. These parts could be assembled to form the bodies of robots, most notably those of additional printers; containers for material storage; energy collection apparatuses; and a host of other applications, with each addition bringing even greater capabilities for extracting resources and building upon the lunar surface.
Proper preparation could greatly extend the reach of this first lunar base to encourage it to grow organically from resources collected on the Moon. The winning team could build a large collection of printers and robots by sending just a few extra electronics, motors, and Mylar sheets for solar collection. This hardware could be installed into the bodies of printers and robots, all made on the Moon. The added costs of launching a slightly heavier payload would be minimal compared to the potential returns that you could receive from increased operational capability on the Moon.
The creative limits of the winning team will be pushed to find new ways of harnessing the few resources they started with. The lunar soil contains a range of extremely useful materials such as aluminum, iron, copper, titanium, and magnesium; all of which are easily extractable for use in specialized mechanical or electrical components. Small amounts of water can be liberated from the soil as it is melted. This water could be collected and used to drive steam engines as a feasible first step towards low-tech locomotion on the Moon. Simple heating elements could be produced from parabolic solar collectors improvised from Mylar sheets applied to the surface of troughs dug into the soil.
Continued support from Earth via rocket bound payloads could accelerate efforts of expanding upon the efforts of the winning team or their model could be repeated elsewhere on the Moon. From one printer comes many. Each new printer will build redundancy into the system and expand the infrastructure required for extraterrestrial manufacturing. From each new robot comes more soil and food for the growing manufacturing base. With proper preparation, this process can continue indefinitely.
 

tldr; Let's take Monero to the Moon and then let it return the favor.

 
Edit 1: I set up the website moneromoonprize.com to post additional information moving forward and propose that we use /moneromoonprize for continued discussion of the competition beyond this thread.
 
Edit 2: Verification of Funds
address:44aaLQFizmb2FdVKuBxwS5i8hgExwZyXpN7APKPeXmyYEc93ecZsweAJ2Rr4g8FDoPjBkXBrXARL4N3cpKbAWxCyUb8LfFM viewkey:3bc4c7354f7b870985a3698a23bcfbd63e01ece14d08eab16ac2b815157a7c03 key images (available for 24 hrs): https://dropfile.to/QzCc2r0 
submitted by outerspacerace to Monero [link] [comments]

Any better alternatives to the banking structure?

Moonkid here, so go ahead and downvote away. Not here to shill my bags of shitcoins, I just want an intelligent conversation with anti-coiners.
When you deposit your money in a bank, you are lending a powerful institution money to do whatever they want to the economy. In return for giving these degenerates money to gamble with, they are supposed to pay you an interest rate. These days, you can expect a negative return through fees and other such nonsense.
Banks are only required to hold between zero and ten percent in reserve, depending on the size of the bank and the type of account. When these scam artists can't account for what little they are required to hold in reserve, the tax payers are forced to pay the difference to print new money and water down their purchasing power.
Personally, I tried boycotting the fractional reserve scam by going paper over plastic. This is nearly impossible these days. Paychecks are y'know...checks, many transactions require a card. Even parking meters are going all plastic.
Bitcoin isn't the ideal alternative to the reserve scam, given the fact that it's backed by nothing more than speculation. But it's an alternative. Personally, I think of it as investing in a new p2p infrastructure to develop a better alternative than what I'm actually investing in.
I'm actually getting paid in the meantime, which is a bonus. But I'll be okay if the fiat value declines. I'm more focused on building leverage. The infrastructure is developed enough for me to shift my portfolio to the more meaningful projects that could make an impact.
submitted by kirkisartist to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Climate Change: Mother Nature needs a Man like a Fish Needs a Bicycle

I have to admit I'm still on the fence with regard to climate change. First of all, I've seen how the left establishment or CIA lies about stuff and how their most powerful weapon is omission. And how the science is highly politicized and misleading. The best reportage has been imho the Corbett Report for essentially debunking.
That said, weather has been highly deranged. Anyone can see that. Highly highly deranged. Gross anomalies and records busted in nearly every area.
Deepwater-Vortex Hypothesis
The most salient example was with the Polar Vortex of 2014, which was in turned caused by the activity of the Ridiculously Resilient Ridge (RRR) of late 2013, an impossibly longstanding anomaly off the northwestern coast of Washington State, whose appearance and disappearance coincided exactly with the stalling and resuming--respectively--of the Gulf of Mexico's productive eddy the "gulf current loop" which in turn powers the gulf stream. And without the Gulf loop, whose twisting power feeds the momentum of the gulf stream, the gulf stream slows down, causing erratic 'jams' in other oceanic currents which then jams up reciprocal wind systems, causing droughts and floods all over the world.
What caused the gulf loop to slow down? Deepwater horizon--the BP oil spill and the actions taken to correct it with surfactant "COREXIT"
I'm saying BP, Obama, Hillary Clinton, EPA, Coast Guard, Navy and Nalco Company caused droughts and floods all over the world by making the decision to spray Corexit on BP oil spill instead of cleaning it up more properly (skimming it off the surface) like non psychopaths would do. Hillary's basically a straight-up cheap redneck from Arkansas--one almost expects her to do the oceanic equivalent of throwing dead car batteries into the forest. But what's Obama's excuse? Get the bad press off him fast, because hey it's making me look super uncool in my new Hugo Boss suit. It was about money and their vanity, no attention to people, truth or consequences.
They poisoned the fish and then lied about that. They caused the ocean gulf loop to STALL by the corexit-petroleum emulsification changing the density of the water in the area. This was akin to turning the Gulf of Mexico into essentially a kitchen sink after an italian meal: a greasy, oily, sudsy, mess...for several years. The change in density screwed up the natural pattern of the undercurrents, slowing them to a stop.
Initially I thought that maybe they used HAARP or some weather machine, and then turned it on to create the RRR, and then turned it off when the gulf loop resumed. After all RRR seemed grossly unnatural. Anyone looking at the radar would have to think that maybe aliens were doing this. It was like a triangle hovering in the same place for over a year iirc
I don't believe this was done by technology anymore. There is another example of the same thing happening elsewhere that came out in an article today. Remember that Ozone hole that we were told to be scared about in the 90s? I do. Well they stopped talking about it. Because it went away. I guess we all thought changing brands of underarm deodorant stopped it. Go us
NASA: ‘Natural Variability,’ Not The UN, Shrank The Ozone Layer Hole
It turns out it went away on it's own. Or Obama Trump once again turned on the weather machine for the greater good.
Kidding. I just don't think they are that smart or competent. Anymore. Kind of a big relief. I can go back to being afraid of archons and aliens and AI instead of my government.
No, I think they--by they I mean the deepstate--are all, largely spychopathic, sycophantic, infantile, child-corporatists that like to roll around in money and when they are caught they continue lying. Or maybe they give insincere apologies because they know they will just use PR agents to manage the situation; heck they might even make money off it with a book deal and many talk shows.
The fact is they don't care. They didn't care enough about the corexit and its consequences on the health of the population. What makes you think they are going to care enough to fix their mistake with a weather machine? It's nonsense
Obama and Hillary--much like their cohorts--have shown themselves in the last year to be devoid of principle and devoid of any substance of merit. They are gaslighters who continue to lie and are still trying to salvage any semblance of support by continuing their lies while still continuing to omit what what we already know to be true, which specifically is that the russiagate narrative is dead. Debunked 33 ways from Sunday. Even today, Nov 2017, they are still trying to lie to us by using sources from 2016, omitting everything we've learned since then!
No, what they've shown is they're capable of really one thing: worldview warfare...and I say that people are defined more by what they do than by what they claim to be. Where they got worldview warfare from says a lot about who they are.
In the meantime, the world goes on, with or without injuries from man.
She's alive I tell you
She doesn't need man's corexits or corrections. She doesn't need fixes to her ozone holes. She doesn't need our help in fixing herself. Just keep in mind, like any strong woman, if you hit her she's going to hit you back twice as hard. So maybe it's time to scale down all the stupid stuff and grow back the trees
I think this is what she's saying, in her own way. We ought to listen.
Epilogue: Story doesn't end there, because: Chemtrails
When it comes to climate, what's omitted is several things. Solar activities. The effects of wifi / cell and wiring/wifi'ing up the planet. GLOBAL DIMMING--oh yes they won't talk about that.
And I believe global dimming is absolutely 100% man made from chemtrails. Now chemtrails we know are real whether you want to tell me to don my tinfoil hat or not. It's not just proven empirically, it's been admitted by the US military and other militaries around the world. Why are they doing it? We know that one reason is for tracking ground 'assets' and 'enemies'...except now that they are running the phoenix program globally they are spraying everywhere with 'taggants', nanoparticles whose chromatic signature is visible under hyperspectral camera, allowing identification of assets as they travel across areas. Kind of like tagging cattle or managing a gps fleet. This is military technology that's being used unwittingly in the civilian domain for essentially illegal / unethical mass surveillance
But if they aren't spraying taggants, what else are they spraying and why? First question is alumino-silicates and alumino-barium particles, cadmium fluoride, zinc fluoride, other toxic heavy metals like cadmium, lead, arsenic and various organo-metallic compounds and complex organic volatiles found in unrefined petroleum that they say are NOT contained in kerosene-like jetfuel.
Ok so why? Could be a multitude of reasons. Including but not limited to: 1) Cheaper to crap it across the atmosphere than to pay to dispose of it properly (industrial waste from fuel, plastic and pharma manufacture), 2) Building on 1, could be a way to obfuscate nuclear weapons manufacture, if it contains fluorides, which it certainly does, 3) Could be used to enhance the microwave signals and other EMF electrical signals from ground to sky (reduce distancewise attenuation, increase gain so to speak) 4) block out the sun or a certain band of solar radiation, 5) used to weaken the population in some way by making them sick
Like Artificial Intelligence, the meaning of life, whether Sessions is a deepstate squirrel or not, whether bitcoin is a hat trick or not, chemtrails are also going to remain one of life's great mysteries.
submitted by 911bodysnatchers322 to C_S_T [link] [comments]

Has anyone ever thought of a new type of payment system 2

Has anyone ever thought of a new type of payment system 2

https://preview.redd.it/skvs6r0gvzz21.png?width=1958&format=png&auto=webp&s=b106fe9a7cc282cce9d5b2451cfad10601f43855
I have received a lot of feedback after my post "Has anyone ever thought of a new type of payment system?". Thanks to all of those who tried to analyse and set out their vision. Special thanks to those who doubted my competence and brought out their own understanding of the processes and entered into a dispute. And very special thanks to those few who used only accusations in scam and profanity as arguments - they made me understand that it is impossible to explain to everyone, no matter how hard you try. Nevertheless, thanks to the first two categories It became clear to me that the information presented in the article is incomplete and needs to be described in more detail, but of course, only to the first two categories.
Disclaimer
The chain of relationships listed below has been greatly simplified to facilitate understanding. Consciously omitted many things, the description of which would take a huge amount of space.
Introduction.
Majority who oppose technology do not look up to the future and, most importantly, have no idea about the past. Technologies are similar to science, innovation, they can frighten with their ideas and cause rejection in the beginning. After adoption, adherents become ardent followers and hardly recognise something new that goes against already established convictions. Bethink of Christianity - some tried to eradicate it, destroy it, burn Christians on fires, feed them to lions, killed unarmed people in gladiatorial battles. Later, Christianity itself has struggled with dissent - Galileo, Copernicus, Bruno. Examples that are closer to us in time are cars with internal combustion engines, telephone, radio, airplanes ... all these inventions met resistance at the stage of their appearance and caused a storm of ridicule and aversion and misunderstanding of the “use cases”. Not such a distant example with the advent of the Internet, when the web pages were so simple and uninformative that the majority of the population of the Earth simply did not take it seriously and, moreover, did not see its use. There are many such examples. And even the temporary absence of the “use cases” does not indicate the uselessness or irrelevance of the technology, it indicates that the world is not ready yet to apply the technology at the moment due to habits, beliefs, interests, and sometimes, incompetence. The topic of the blockchain and cryptocurrency in particular is susceptible to reproaches in the absence of its practical use, which is understandable due to the youth of the technology and its initial stage of formation and development. In addition, in some cases, the line should be drawn between the cryptocurrency and the blockchain technology itself, since the majority of people do not see the technology itself, but only its derivative in the form of a mass of coins, most of which are dummies and really have no application. But, nevertheless, even at the present stage of development of the blockchain technology, the talk about the lack of “use cases” indicates not owning information, well, or not wanting to see the obvious - merchants, Jaguar, Facebook...
All this applies to today's financial sector conditions. And that is obvious, because the technology of making payment via plastic cards comes from the 1950s. Several generations of people grew up on the existing system and have a long-established habit of using it. Several generations of banks earn huge amounts of money on commissions that customers pay. Several generations of companies providing these payments have changed leadership. Some have gone, and those who remain hold such strong positions and their profits are so huge that they have no reason to rejoice in large numbers for the technology - after all, they can shake their incomes, and the scale of these companies does not allow them to respond quickly to changing time. But even with this in mind, the interest of these companies in technology is obvious. Such pillars like VISA, MC, WU, Barklays, BBVA and many others either look for ways to introduce the blockchain technology or already use it. But, nevertheless, attempts to introduce the technology are still being applied to the existing payment system, credit, and financial relations. Now, I will introduce my own arguments and briefly describe essentially new approach to making payments.
Part One - "What are the existing payment systems and how do they work."
In today's payment system relations, there are six subjects:
  1. Client - buyer of the goods;
  2. Bank-Issuer, where the client keeps his money;
  3. Seller of the goods (Merchant), which accepts the client's card for payment;
  4. Bank Acquirer, where the Merchant keeps his account;
  5. Switch - payment system (PS) that connects the Issuer and Acquirer (for ease of understanding - VISA, Master Card, AMEX, Union Pay, etc);
  6. Processing center - an enterprise certified by the PS, which processes payments of the Bank-Acquire and Bank-Issuer;
  7. There are still various clearing and settlement centers) authorized by payment systems and local securities in different countries to carry out payment operations and perform clearing processes, i.e., reducing settlements between banks' balances, but we will omit them for simplicity of explanation and understanding, since these functions Centers can be performed by Bank-Equal and, in our example, to simplify the description.
Suppose that an American client, whose account is held in a certain American bank, came to Australia to buy coffee. He pays with his plastic card, putting it to the merchant's terminal (POS-terminal). Money from a client is in the account of an American bank, how does the Merchant receive it? POS-terminal Merchant belongs to the bank in which the Merchant holds its account in Bank Acquirer.
  1. The terminal reads the client card and sends information about it to Bank-Acquirer;
  2. Bank-Acquirer is not connected in any way with the Bank-Issuer, therefore, it cannot request directly the payment, and the transfer directly from America to Australia will not allow the client to enjoy hot coffee. Therefore, Bank-Acquirer asks the Processing Center about the availability of the required balance on the client's card;
  3. The processing center requests Switch for the availability of the required balance on the client card;
  4. Switch contacts the Bank-Issuer and requests the availability of the necessary balance on the client's account;
  5. Bank-Issuer confirms to Switch the existence of the required balance (or does not confirm, then the refusal of the transaction occurs);
  6. Switch confirms to the Processing Center the presence of the required balance on the client’s card (account) and gives a signal to the terminal to confirm the payment;
  7. The processing center confirms to the Bank-Acquirer the existence of the necessary balance on the client’s card (account) and gives a signal to the terminal to confirm the payment;
  8. The client has paid and he leaves satisfied;
  9. Bank-Acquirer transfers the sum of purchase to the merchant's account;
  10. The Bank-Acquirer transfers information about the payment made to the Processing Center and issues a claim for compensation of the payment amount;
  11. The processing center transfers information about the payment the Bank-Acquirer made to Switch, since, in fact, the Bank-Acquire has transferred the money to its merchant;
  12. Switch pays from its funds to the Bank-Acquire (for simplicity of explanation, we omit here the clearing system of settlements through authorized clearing centers (in fact, the process is much more complicated);
  13. Switch bills the Bank-Issuer (for simplicity of explanation, we omit here the clearing system of settlements through authorized clearing centers (in fact, the process is much more complicated);
  14. Bank Issuer paid to Switch (for simplicity of explanation, we omit here the clearing system of settlements through authorized clearing centers (in fact, the process is much more complicated)
We can introduce scheme:

Traditional processing scheme
Switch is an intermediary between all the parties of the entire system and receives a commission for all transactions. Who can even imagine the infrastructure setting expenses to operate the processes of settlement analysis, comply with the requirements of KYC / AML, match modern safety requirementsfor the launching of data centers around the world. Of course, commission is the source to operate.
For ease of explanation, we imagine that the Switch is the processing center.
Conceptually, costs can be divided into Organizational and Technical
  1. Organizational:
  • creating jobs for staff of specialists, most of which are expensive: system administrators, engineers, 24 hrs. support services and an authorization center;
  • making decisions of the placement of software and hardware systems. Organization of your own premise(s) or placement of your software and hardware systems in the premises of a third-party company (outsourcer);
  • development of a system for controlling access to the premise(s) of the processing center, including such procedures as: organizing access monitoring, employees to the processing center premises, developing work procedures in high-security areas, etc .;
  • making a decision on the choice of the supplier of software necessary for building a processing center certified by an appropriate payment system;
  • deciding on the choice of suppliers of related services (for example, courier services and / or gateways for sending SMS or PUSH messages, and the subsequent construction of contractual and working relations with it;
  • development, coordination and implementation of procedures for correct work with cryptographic equipment and quantities, and issuance of domestic regulations governing the work of security officers (security officers);
  1. Technical:
  • The purchase of hardware (system units, hard drives, RAM (random access memory, Does RAM), uninterruptible and backup power supplies, racks, etc.),
  • the purchase of the server software (operating systems, database systems, etc.), including license fees vendors of such software,
  • the purchase of cryptographic equipment necessary for the generation and correct processing of operations on cryptographic values, such as CVV or CVC;
  • information security solutions (ensuring compliance with the requirements of PCI DSS, federal laws, protection document management systems);
And such (all of the above) costs must be borne constantly, if we are talking about expanding your presence. Switch (processing centers) can cover these costs only with a part of the commission for the implementation of monetary transactions, which is borne by the other participants in payment relations.
Since the recipient of the client’s money is ultimately the merchant (seller / trader), it is logical that the entire amount of the commission is charged to him. This commission is called Interchange Fee (hereinafter - IF), it can be from 0.7% to 5% depending on the riskiness of operations. For example, an ordinary store, on average, pays 1.5% of IF, while, for example, an online store can pay 5%.
It is noteworthy that for the client this commission is not visible and in 90% of cases he does not even know about it. Such a commission is included in the price of the goods. That is, by selling you a product for $ 100, the Merchant will receive (if he pays IF = 2.24%) $ 97.76. The Switch distributes these $ 2.24 between the participants as follows:
Traditional Processing (TP)
Consumer pays$ 100.00Overall Fee$ 2.24Issuer Receives$ 1.80Acquirer Receives$ 0.31Visa Receive$ 0.13Merchant Receives$ 97.76
o we pulled how the current payment system functions. Now, in detail about how this can function using blockchain technology.
Part 2 - “New payment system and how it works.”
One of the main significant achievements of blockchain technology is excluding of intermediaries. In the field of finance, this gives special advantages — cost savings.
A new type of payment systems based on blockchain can successfully use this advantage. Naturally, there are necessary assumptions for the use of this technology in the financial sphere:
  1. It is necessary that the two contractors and the Merchant are in the same blockchain;
  2. Merchant must have a POS terminal transmitting information to the blockchain;
  3. Banks must open clients wallets and implement data exchange between blockchain and ABS (automated banking system) of the bank,
  4. In order to comply with the requirements of KYC / AML, private keys are kept by the bank;
  5. Must be a blockchain base Switch to physically conduct clearing of payments between the Merchant and the Issuing Bank.
Just as in the situation above with our American customer buying coffee in Australia: the same American and Australian banks, but they are in the same blockchain. It is convenient to send just cryptocurrency, of course, but the question immediately arises - “Why does the Merchant need it and what will it do with it? How will he solve the issue of currency fluctuations? ”Immediately make a reservation that I will not describe the technology here thoroughly, since this is a commercial secret, but briefly, I will describe the principle of operation.
So, two banks are in the same blockchain. In the blockchain, there is a special protocol implemented that allows to “mirror” the client fiat accounts to the blockchain, thus, the exchange of information between the client’s account and the blockchain takes place on an ongoing basis.
  1. The client brings the card to the merchant's terminal; the terminal requests the availability of the required amount in the blockchain. If the required amount is available (if not - decline), the protocol starts the transaction, which the client confirms (fingerprint);
  2. The Fiat amount on the client’s account of the Bank-Issuer is held by the Bank (thus collaterizing the amount of cryptocurrency to be transferred);
  3. The required, “mirror” amount in cryptocurrency is transferred to the Merchant's wallet;
  4. Merchant's wallet, having received the transaction, sends information to the Merchant Terminal, payment is accepted;
  5. The American enjoys coffee. Now, the Merchant has a cryptocurrency on the wallet, Bank-Issuer hold amount in fiat currency;
  6. Switch (the very same payment system), “buys” the cryptocurrency for the Australian dollar from the Merchant in Australia, in America, the Bank-Issuer transfers Switch a collaterized amount of USD.
Again, for ease of explanation, I omit some points that accompany the clearing process.
The scheme of the work of the new payment system can be represented as follows:

Decentralized Processing scheme

What is the advantage?
  1. Switch can set the price for its services significantly lower than existing today, because it saves on the entire infrastructure - hardware, data centers, personnel.
  2. The Bank-Acquirer does not lend, in fact, the Merchant’s account, so its remuneration can be significantly reduced. In addition, in this chain of relations Bank-Acquirer is not needed at all, because the Merchant can hold an account immediately in the Switch;
  3. There is no need to create processing centers, which means that you do not need to bear the costs of creating infrastructure;
  4. The cost of the transaction in the blockchain network is from $ 0.01- $ 0,05;
  5. Transaction time - from 1 to 5 seconds;
In numbers, everything looks like this:
Decentralized Processing (DP)SavingConsumer pays$ 100.00Overall Fee$ 0.650-70.98%Issuer Receives$ 0.35Acquirer Receives$ 0.30Switch$ 0.13Merchant Receives$ 99.22-65.18%
The savings in the process are obvious! The merchant receives 65.18% more money on his account. Bank-Acquirer receives almost as much as in the scheme with traditional processing. The Bank-Issuer receives less remuneration, but under a scheme with decentralized processing, it bears much less expenses on security of payments, payment verification, customer verification, respectively, personnel costs, which always constitute the bulk of costs, decrease.
Conclusion.
In addition to the above economic factors, a new type of payment system has another, perhaps one of the most important advantages compared to traditional PS - to provide an infrastructure for the issuing of plastic cards for issuing banks is much cheaper than traditional PS.
The main problem that the new PS will face is the speed of processing payments. VISA today can handle 150 million transactions per day or 1,700 transactions per second with the possibility of securing up to 24,000 transactions per second. Until a certain time, no public blockchain could solve this problem. Now, compared to the published data on the speed of other blockchains on main net, NeuronChain can confidently claim 2nd place at its speed of 100,000 tps, so this issue is no longer a deterrent.
Of course, to implement the payment relations described above, it is necessary to do a great deal of work, not only on the IT part, but also on technical and legal issues, to spend tremendous efforts on marketing and explaining the processes of the participants in the relationship. But impossible is nothing. In any case, the blockchain technology gives us this opportunity.
submitted by neuronchain to NeuronChain [link] [comments]

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